Why HIV Isn’t a Death Sentence Anymore


[♪ INTRO] If you’re looking for the virus that’s
challenged scientists the most in the last 40 years, HIV is it. For a while, every time we’d
develop a new treatment for it, the virus would just mutate
so the drug didn’t work anymore. And even though the worst of the
pandemic is over in the US, nearly 5,000 people around the world
get infected with HIV every day, and we still don’t have a vaccine, or a cure. But in just a few decades, we’ve gone from
knowing nothing about HIV and AIDS to being able to manage and control the disease. Today, with the recommended treatments,
someone who’s HIV-positive is expected to live nearly as long
as someone who’s uninfected. And researchers are working on
all kinds of new ideas to kick even more virus butt,
including potential cures. When the AIDS pandemic
was getting started back in 1981, we didn’t know what caused the disease,
and there certainly weren’t any drugs to treat it. The most doctors could do was to treat the
infections patients developed because the virus had killed off so many T cells that they
were left with basically no immune system One of the very first drugs that showed promise
against the HIV virus itself was suramin, a medicine already being used
to treat tropical diseases. It reduced the amount of virus in cells grown
in petri dishes and in patients’ blood. But in a small clinical trial,
it didn’t help patients at all, and it actually made them sicker
because the drug was pretty toxic. Labs then started to test old compounds
for anything that might work, and eventually, they found something. It was called azidothymidine, or AZT. It had been a candidate for
a cancer drug back in the ‘60s, but it never really went anywhere. Now, it seemed to keep HIV-infected cells
alive longer, at least in the lab. Excited scientists rushed AZT into trials
with patients, including a placebo-controlled trial, which investigators decided to end
early because the drug worked so well. Although the trial had a lot of flaws,
patients getting AZT had more T cells and
were much less likely to die. In March of 1987, the FDA approved it, making
AZT the first AIDS drug in America. But it was not cheap, and it came with a bunch
of side effects, like anemia, muscle weakness, nausea, heartburn, insomnia, and heart and
liver damage. AZT works against HIV because
it blocks reverse transcriptase, the enzyme that copies the
virus’s RNA-based genome into DNA. But AZT also does something
similar to a human enzyme, which causes some of
those nasty side effects. Doctors eventually realized that a lower dose
of AZT could get rid of a lot of those problems, but the drug had an even bigger pitfall:
it only worked for a limited time. After a while, the levels of virus in the
person’s blood started to tick up because it had mutated in a way that meant AZT couldn’t
block reverse transcriptase anymore. And that’s the major challenge
with treating HIV. It develops resistance to drugs really easily,
because it tends to make a lot of mistakes when it’s copying its genome. Most of the time these mistakes
are bad for the virus, but every now and then, the mistakes are helpful. Over time, and with selection, HIV will mutate to get around whatever drug you throw at it. But! As scientists would soon discover,
there is a way to fight back. You just need to combine
a bunch of different drugs that can target the virus at
other stages of its life cycle. Like the first protease inhibitor, which was
approved in December of 1995. Proteases are enzymes that cut proteins into
smaller pieces, and HIV uses one to make a lot of the proteins it needs, including the
proteins it uses to infect new cells. So with a protease inhibitor, the virus is
still making new baby viruses, but they can’t do much. On their own, protease inhibitors weren’t
much better than AZT. They also had some pretty severe side effects,
and only worked until the virus mutated. But now doctors had drugs that targeted two
different parts of the HIV life cycle. Which meant that they could combine them, making it much harder for the virus
to mutate to escape both drugs. That changed everything. In 1996, doctors started giving
patients these combo cocktails, made of at least two,
and soon three or four drugs. They called it highly active
antiretroviral therapy, or HAART, because it worked so much better
than the individual antiretrovirals. Patients started living longer. The levels of virus in their blood
went down, and stayed down, and their T cell counts stayed high. Today, it’s often just called
antiretroviral therapy, or ART, because it’s the standard treatment. We now have dozens of different drugs
that can make up that cocktail, many with fewer and less severe
side effects than before. This is the breakthrough that changed HIV infection from a death sentence to a chronic disease. It’s also helped with preventing the spread
of HIV, because ART is now so effective that the amount of virus in patients
is often undetectable. Not only does that make the
infected person feel better, but it’s also much harder for
them to spread the virus to others. Some of the most compelling evidence
for this comes from a 2016 study that monitored 1,000 gay and straight
couples for HIV transmission. One partner was HIV-positive, but on ART and
didn’t have much of the virus in their blood, while the other was HIV-negative. The couples had sex, and didn’t use condoms. Normally this would be a recipe for disaster. But none of the HIV-positive people
passed the virus to their partner, despite 58,000 condom-free sex acts. That’s not to say that you shouldn’t use
a condom, because there are still lots of things that can go wrong, not to mention the
other reasons they’re important. But it’s still some pretty solid evidence
that treatment can also double as prevention. So the more people who can be put on ART,
the better… not just for them, but for everyone. Researchers have taken this idea a step further
with what’s called pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, where people who are at high risk
of infection also take antiretrovirals. Studies have found that people who take a
daily pill containing two antiretrovirals have a 90% lower risk of contracting HIV from
sex, as long as they take it consistently. Which is actually one of the biggest problems
in the HIV world. Things like side effects or trouble remembering
when to take which pills can sometimes make it hard for people to stick to their medication
schedule. But PrEP only works if the drug is in your
system. If you skip a dose, there isn’t enough of
it to keep HIV from getting a foothold. And for someone with HIV, as soon as they
stop taking their proper dose, even if they have almost no virus in their entire body,
HIV will start to come back. By letting the virus replicate, even a little,
it could mutate, and because some of the drug is still around, it’s the perfect environment
to select for a drug-resistant virus that may be impossible to treat. The reality is, as good as antiretrovirals
are, they can’t eliminate every single virus, so an infected person has to take the drugs
exactly the right way for the rest of their life. That’s why many researchers still want to
find a cure. There are two main types of potential cures:
a sterilizing cure and a functional cure. A sterilizing cure is what you would think
of as a cure: total eradication from the body with absolutely no virus left. With a functional cure, on the other hand,
the person would basically be in remission. They could stop taking antiretrovirals, but
somewhere, deep inside them, they’d still have a small amount of the virus. Most researchers are focusing
on a functional cure because it turns out a
sterilizing cure is extremely difficult. In fact, it’s only happened for one person: a man named Timothy Brown,
aka the Berlin patient. He was HIV-positive and also had leukemia,
so doctors had the idea to try to treat both with a bone marrow transplant using cells
from an HIV-resistant person. HIV uses a surface protein called CCR5 to
enter cells, and some people naturally have mutations in this protein that make it hard
for HIV to infect them. Doctors gave Brown chemo and radiation to
kill off his original immune cells, and then transferred in those special bone marrow cells. And to this day, he’s remained HIV-negative,
without having to take antiretrovirals. Technically, we don’t know for sure if he’s
totally virus-free, but so far, so good. Now, as amazing as that procedure was, scientists
aren’t exactly sure why it worked. It might have been because of the special
cells, but it also could have happened when the immune cells from the donor attacked
and killed off Brown’s immune cells, along with the HIV inside them. In any case, we can’t do it for everyone
because bone marrow transplants are super risky; lots of people die from them. And if those HIV-resistant cells are critical, there’s not exactly a surplus of them lying around. So right now, a sterilizing cure doesn’t
look likely. A functional cure is much more promising, and researchers are looking
at a bunch of different strategies. One thing they’ve tried is giving antiretrovirals
extremely early on. This sometimes works for patients for many
years, even a decade or more. But many people relapse, and have to go back
to taking medication. It would also be great if we could get the
immune system to attack HIV and do the work the antiretrovirals do now. The problem is, HIV is very good at hiding. The virus stays hidden in cells
called latent reservoirs, and it doesn’t try to replicate in those cells,
which means antiretrovirals have no effect. So, even though the virus isn’t causing
any harm, it’s still there, and it could become re-activated at any time. One possible way around this is to deploy
CRISPR, the gene editing tool, to change the person’s CCR5 proteins. The virus wouldn’t be able to infect new cells, so even if it re-activated,
it wouldn’t be able to spread. The other main approach is to find a way to
reactivate the HIV that’s hiding and take care of it, either with drugs
or with the immune system, something scientists are calling
the shock and kill strategy. At the very least, researchers are hoping
to develop these methods into functional cures. But if they got every last virus,
they could also be sterilizing cures. The ultimate goal would be to
eradicate HIV completely. But after more than 3 decades of trying, we
still don’t have a vaccine. There are some promising leads, but it’s
been difficult because the virus mutates so rapidly,
and it’s hard to make one vaccine work against all the slightly different
viruses out there. So, we’ve come a long way, but there’s
plenty of work left to do. Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow. It’s actually part of a mini-series. If you’re interested in the story of how
we discovered HIV in the first place, you can check out the first in the mini-series
if you haven’t seen it yet. And for more videos on the most
fascinating science stories out there, you can go to
youtube.com/scishow and subscribe. [♪ OUTRO]

99 thoughts on “Why HIV Isn’t a Death Sentence Anymore”

  1. Its now coming out the HIV is possibly benign and the drugs like AZT were killing you not HIV. There is a coverup going on.

  2. There's cures but in tge next 10 yrs there's gonna be to many people every where if u saw this coming would you make it easy for low class tendencies ppl to syrvive?

  3. everyone go donate to mercury phoenix trust they are an organization that helps fund scientists who research for better prevention and cures !!

  4. A little bit disappointed that you didn't talk about a vaccine, which is actually being studied and showed some results in a Phase II trial made by an Italian team.

  5. Why nothing in both your videos about the stigma that played a role in the spread of the desease and the stigma and government funding factors that played a role in stalling research around treatment?

  6. Now it's 2 people who have been cured of hiv infection through cancer treatment. He also got bone marrow transplants.

  7. As with all big pharma, it's $$$

    Infect all pharma top executives and countries leaders with hiv, guarantee a cure or vaccine will be developed very soon.

  8. HIV may no longer be a death sentence in the DEVELOPED world but it is not an excuse to have unprotected sex or inject with contaminated needles.

  9. They don't want to create a full cure because our lovely government want to keep the people sick. You know sick people=more money no sick people=no money.

  10. It's a death sentence without those crazy expensive drugs that MAY not work for your HIV genotype anyway. It's best to allow mother nature to do what she's supposed to do, and….just go to the light.

  11. Wonder if radiating half the immune system combined with retro pills would force the elimination of it? Hmmm seems deadly but worth a try for the labs

  12. There’s a million things that can kill you every day! Live life to the max while you can cos there’s a ‘bullet’ out there with your name on it!

  13. I really appreciate the effort put in making this videos. My father is an HIV expert and since I was little he taught me the risk and importance of treatment and responsibility. He lost many friends and I do not wish anyone the pain he has gone through along the way. Anyway, thanks for spreading knowledge in a matter as important as this one.

  14. my name is Ken Ben and i lived with HIV for about three years. My family doctor placed me under medications ever since. I have been spending so much money ever since then but nothing changed. So early this year, i started making my own research via the Internet for natural herbs i can take to help improve my health. I came across a comment about doctor Dr OMOYE and how he healed a woman with the same virus using natural herbs. So i reached out to him, he asked me some questions which i answered. Then he prepared some herbs and send to me. I used as he directed and in less than a month, He told me to go for a check up again which i did. with great amazement, the result was negative. I went to a different hospital some days later to confirm the result and it was also Negative. I am reaching out to people suffering from this deadly virus not to loose hope. Contact Dr.OMOYE today and his herbal mixture will make you healthy again. I was once a victim. You too can be free of any sickness… You can reach the doctor through his email address ([email protected]) or whatsapp him or call +2349034412845

  15. HIV is not a death sentence any more because the toxic drugs are not as toxic any more. I’m in touch with hundreds of people who have been diagnosed with so called HIV & have never taken any toxic medication, they are all alive & perfectly ok after many many years , HIV doesn’t lead to AIDS, open your eyes people & please find it in your heart to look into the other side of this , it takes a lot of effort to not think too much with your emotions &!subjective thought

  16. If I am positive, ? I want lots of high grade Afghanistany or Blue Dream, never any S.T.D."s or any law suites, just clean Mary Jane, clean, pure Kitty Kat

  17. you can thank your windows computer for the funding that contributed to these developments, buy a windows and save the world

  18. what if u keep a chunk of donor blood and tissue alive in a special environment so you could study hiv with out needing a patient that can suffer when things don't go your way

  19. make the HIV thinking Your Poison is The So Delicius Pan Cake > can u ? ( i think imposible )
    And boom the DNA CUt on your body death it selt ..

    or Filter your blood , and change T-CELL

  20. I am doing research with two 3 people who hiv pstf and now they are hiv negative.. they have functional cure. all of them didnt take any ART!

  21. The after math of the sexual revolution, stds at an all time high =    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qZjBmn4R-og&t=95s

  22. For me, using crispr or bacteriophage is better for clearing or killing virus and other dangerous bacteria. Crispr can analyze dna of an organism, copying those information inside the virus dna can be used to find a better solution to kill it, or can be used to locate the reservoirs of the remaining HIV. Bacteriophage on the other hand is one of the most dangerous organism in the world and can kill virus and bacteria by disrupting their RNA after that, destroys the DNA.

  23. Friends happy me I AM SO VERY HAPPY TODAY!!! That is why am giving this big thanks to Dr.oje. I have been suffering from HIV/AIDS for the past six 
    (6)years, i have spent a lot of money getting drugs from the hospitals  to keep myself healthy, i tried everything possible to get myself cure, but i 
    couldn't get any solution! until i decided to try herbal cure. That was how i got in contact with this great herbal doctor in an online research, i contacted him and after i took the herbal medicine he sent to me on the 12th day i went to the hospital for taste i was negative and i went for another test. To God be the glory i tested HIV/AIDS  negative also, (I am so glad to see my myself HIV/AIDS negative once again). I'm very proud to express my happiness through 
    this platform and to say a big thanks to Dr. oje for restoring my  life back to normal. You can as well contact Dr. oje via 
    [email protected] or call/whatsapp him on +2347035302579  if you 
    are infected with HIV/AIDS virus or having any health problems. DOCTOR OJE CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:
    1.  HIV/AIDS
    2. HERPES 1/2
    3. CANCER
    4. ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease)
    5. Herpatitis B
    6.chronic pancreatitis
    7.Emphysema
    8.COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
    9.asthma
    10.Acute angle-closure Glaucoma
    11.Diabates

  24. It's been over a year now since this was released and a couple of updates…the World Health Organization has released statements that say HIV+ individuals on effective ART with nondetectable viral loads are not contagious in terms of sexual interactions (I don't think they are accepting blood donations but they are beginning to accept transplantable organs for use with other HIV+ individuals). As a result of this conclusion, they have decided the way to eradicate the virus from the community is to get EVERYONE who is infected on effective treatment. Effective treatment means no new infections and even if we can't cure the disease in those currently infected we can get rid of it by attrition. We also now have a set of Chinese twins whose DNA was prenatally altered with CRISPR technology (amid HUGE controversy….) – significant to this discussion because there has been successful experimentation in animal models using CRISPR to remove HIV from infected mice, but no one knows what side effects of gene editing could occur using this technology in people. These girls were subjected to this procedure so that they wouldn't get HIV from their father (who is HIV+) but no one knows what other effects could result (and because of that the doctor who did the gene editing is facing a lot of legal problems for not following research orotocols….) The world will be watching…
    Reading the comments, someone saw something about "the Berlin oatient" having to go back on meds but that is in direct conflict with my most recent info…he and a second patient who also underwent a similar bone marrow transplant are both off meds and doing fine.
    And one other comment…someone mentioned little content on vaccines…vaccine research hasn't got us very far with HIV because the virus targets the very part of the immune system that makes vaccines work. Since it destroys those cells that mediate immunity it also destroys the cells that would respond to the infection itself. They can't get rid of the virus because activating them to fight it also activates the mechanism that destroys those cells. So vaccine research hasn't been successful to date.
    Updates notwithstanding an excellent discussion of the subject. Keep up the good work.

  25. The biggest heartache will be finding a drug that for example for a 20 yr old infected lives to be 90 with advanced drugs. Thats a worst sentence then a cure… Yaaay to science…😳😰😳😰

  26. I think reprogramming our genes to create effective antibodies and protein synthesis is only a single treatment for the HIV
    Although it is costly but does work

  27. Dr Claus Kohnlein has many patients who have so called HIV & do Not take any of these awful ARV's , they are perfectly fine , there are many health issues that can be falsely linked to so called HIV , I know of so many people who have HIV , none of them are taking this medicine, they are perfectly fine after many years, over 20 -25 years some of them , look into so called elite controllers , people who have never taken toxic meds , they say they are special & try to make them feel special but its pretty simple really , if you have not got something else that makes you ill then HIV alone can not cause AIDS , if your life style is toxic then sort that out. My best wishes, please take a new journey or at least look into it , please

  28. Raise ur GcMAF is 100% eradification. They wont tell you this because disease is profit.

  29. Now there are 2 men that have had a sterilizing cure. They even checked his brain and the virus is gone! Wish there was an easier, safer, and cheaper way. I honestly believe some day they will cure HIV! 😁

  30. I have a question. If you have HIV and you sleep with someone without telling them and they get it, can you get prosecuted for that? What if you are on the ART medication and they still get it? If you knowingly infect someone with other sexually transmitted diseases is that a punishable crime? What if you are a HIV positive mother and you knowingly breastfeed, is that a crime? Can HIV be transmitted through the womb?

  31. HEP "C" is the worse and is the silent killer. More than Half of Baby boomer And GEN X have it without even doing anything. Most do not know they have it! Get tested.

  32. Damn , salute to all the scientists out there who are trying to find a cure for this disease. It must be annoying and frustrating for a scientist who think they just found a way to kill the virus , tested it and find out that it didn't even kill the virus.

  33. A friend I went to school with worked on HIV research about 10-15 years ago with mathematical modelling.

    He & his co researchers had a paper published on it.

    He's now more famous for modelling on the Zombie Apocalypse, using the same sort of modelling.

    Funny how people get more kudos for engaging with pop culture than doing medical research.

  34. So with all that was said and the intense research that was shared, i need to ask if any of u heard about Dr. Sebi and him curing HIV and AIDS in his patients?

  35. There is a proof of concept HIV-1 functional cure utilising siRNA. Thus was released in a 2018 paper. Found it looking for RNAi technology use in therapeutics. The siRNA doesn't require medication adherence. Only requires a dose every so often. The siRNA can enter the reservoir cells through different delivery methods.

  36. woo-hoo guys dr° kanayo 14days herbs cure is for real his WhatsApp contact: +1909 375 5642 It cured me completely my wife from Brest cancer. she has been suffering form the cancer since 09 which I've been seeking for completely cure from so many people but non worked, but I give God all the glory. for not giving up hope united last month I saw a testimony from a lady talking about how she got cured from Hiv 1&2 after using Dr• kanayo 14days herbs treatment…. To cut the long story short I contact him and order is 14 days natural herbal medicine which cure her after using it as instructed by Dr.. kanayo…. I'm so glad I found him to save my wife😀

  37. Hiv virus is man made by nwo.
    Its part of a eunics program
    To all wicked people that shine they face away from god
    Just look at Georgia guidestones the text.

    Look into bht antiviral
    Look it up

  38. God bless Dr. Okoro for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of HIV since 2011 and I was taking my medications, I wasn't satisfied i needed to get the HIV. out of my system, I searched about some possible cure for HIV i saw a comment about Dr.okoro, how he cured HIV with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine through UPS SPEED POST. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 8 days later i was cured from HIV,
    Once again thank you sir DR okoro dauda sausage cure the flowing virus, or reach me with his mobile number +2348148300543
    here are the illness he can cure>
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  39. First of all we need a positive environment in third world countries like mine (India) where we can discuss about HIV with our close ones and openly talk about it and have proper healthcare facilities to fight the disease. Also never forget to use a condom and enjoy your sex life.

  40. HOW I GOT CURE FROM HERPES VIRUS WITH THE HELP OF HERBAL MEDICINE . i was diagnosed with HERPES VIRUS 4years ago, i lived in sorrow, pain, and difficulties , i contacted so many doctors on this issue and spent so much money to ensure that my health comes back normal but my condition never got better, i was determined to get my life back so one day, a friend of mine who was infected with the herpes virus called me and told me that she was cure by a HERBAL DOCTOR who's name is CALLED DOCTOR MOHAMMED, She told me that he has saved many lifes from the HERPES VIRUS and other virus and disease like, HIV, CANCER, ALS DISEASE, and so many illness with his POWERFUL HERBAL MEDICINE i contacted Dr MOHAMMED on his email address [email protected] we spoke on the issue i told him all that i went through and he told me not to worry that everything will be fine again so he prepared the herbal medicine and send it to me through DHL courier delivering service and told me how to use it,after some days i begin to notice a very huge changes in my body, all the symptoms were eliminated completely, no weakness or stiffness, i am perfectly okay, i am so healthy and perfect in my health after taking doctor mohammed herbal medicine, i am perfectly healthy and okay then i realize that this herbal medicine is really working, than after the 24days of usage I went to see the doctor for test ,then the result was negative,am the happiest human on earth now. this testimony is we go around the world. thanks to Dr MOHAMMED , God bless you. you can also reach him on his whatsApp / call number +2349036036397, or email [email protected], HE HAS CURE FOR many diseases and virus, HERPES VIRUS, HIV, CANCER, HPV and many other virus and disease

  41. Even you have HIV or not ,you still die, all u have to do is SELF-DECIPLINE,, love yourself, because it is not the virus that would kill you but DEPRESSION,, accept it and live with decipline ,, long life will be yours …

  42. The method of bone transplant has happened twice now 🙂 https://labiotech.eu/medical/hiv-remission-bone-marrow-transplant/

  43. God bless Dr. Hendrix for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of HERPES since 2014 and I was taking my medications, I wasn't satisfied i needed to get the HERPES out of my system, I searched about some possible cure for HERPES i saw a comment about Dr. Hendrix,how he cured HERPES with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine through UPS SPEED POST. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 14 days later i was cured from HERPES,He take care of other disease and virus thank you [email protected] or text +1 339-201-9132

  44. Hello i want to share yo the world how i was cured of diabetes type2 with the help of herbal medicine. I Have been battling with diabetes for a very long time I saw a post on YouTube on how this great herbal doctor cured diabetes and I decided to give him a try whenni first contacted him I was in doubt but he made me believe that I can be cure of this so I continued with him, he prepared me some herbs which he send to me through UPS delivery service. When I got the medicine, I call him and ask him how will I be taking it, he gave me his instructions which adhere to to my surprise I felt changes in me. I when to my doctor who run some text on me and he told me that my sugar level is now very normal. I want you guys to also get yours, Very easy and with no side effect, contact Dr Asika today and be free. His WhatsApp number is +2347065795494 or email him on [email protected]
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