Virtual Currencies – The Future Of Money | BITCOIN |



look closely what do we all have in common no matter what corner of the world you live in you need food water shelter and money half of every transaction involves money in exchange for goods or services stocks a loaf of bread illegal drugs you got to pay for it we spend much of our lives chasing money to make a living and accomplish our dreams but it's also an instrument of destruction some might say evil and driving criminals to lie steal and even murder the existing banking system extracts enormous value from society and it is parasitic in nature money is a catalyst for the worst and the best of human endeavor before civilization we created currents few Awards the path to power champion and enemy of innovation money is so integral to our society and our global economy and its true nature remains a mystery to most this is the story of money perhaps the end of money as we know it no matter how fat your bank account or how thin your wallet to us it's all cold hard cash there are some who want to kill it get rid of it earn your dollars your euros your yen and transform every penny you have into ones and zeros digital currency entrusted to the web and computers spread across the planet magic internet money is called cryptocurrency Bitcoin invented in secret it was a gift to the world it's not just the currency but it's actually programmable money a potential curse on bankers I mean there's nothing that the big banks or politicians can do to stop it breaking every government's grip on money supply what the internet did for information Bitcoin is doing for money could it be the new goal no you have to really stretch your imagination to infer what the intrinsic value good corners regulators the Federal Reserve the banking system please to understand this is a thing that they have to take seriously this is going to change the economic culture bitcoin could be a microeconomic miracle worker and it could be a macroeconomic wrecking ball is Bitcoin the currency of the future the godsend equivalents or a recipe for financial disaster if you trust your money just as it is we have a little story to share once upon a time there was a big party with everyone standing around the punchbowl drunk politicians credited the strong economy to their wise decisions businesses jumped into new profitable markets ignoring risk in fact the experts said there was no risk then troubling market data from miner country spooked the markets rumours spread more bad news rattled housing prices at the heart of the financial world a major bank when insolvent investors and businesses made a run on the other banks demanding their cash deposits the largest financial institutions in the center of the modern world were frozen assets were seized thanks for closed a credit crunch threatening the entire world economy and then finally the government stepped in the largest bank bailout ever swift action by the head of state had saved the day remember that no you don't it happened 2,000 years ago Rome 33 AD ground zero for the first recorded liquidity crisis and government bailout in history the largest empire the world had ever seen was brought to its knees by a banking disaster and burr Tiberius used money from the National Treasury to bail out the country's troubled banks and companies history may not repeat itself but it certainly rhymes badly people in power and their money have always been at the very center of it the story of money is as old as civilization itself when we lived in small tribes keeping track of debt was easy you owed somebody a load of firewood a neighbor owed you a piece of meat credits and debits were kept in your head a mental ledger currency is a language that allows us to express transactional value between people it's technology that's older than the wheel is as old as fire when humans wanted to trade outside their tribe or village they needed something everyone could agree had value something scalable enter commodity money's there were many kinds but each had to embody the same five characteristics a commodity money is relatively scarce easily recognizable can be cut into smaller pieces you can substitute one piece for another of equal value and you can carry it around without too much trouble in ancient Rome it was soft the Aztecs used cacao beans it was whale teeth on Fiji yak dung in Tibet shelves in Africa and China Graeme's metal ivory rare stones leather fish if it had the five characteristics of commodity money someone probably used it as currency and then you ask what value do these currencies have if you go into a primary school you'll see children exchanging rubber bands and tamagochi and pokemon cards and baseball cards and sweets and candy and any other form of currency people invent currency when they have no other currency and now they're going to invent digital currencies but commodities that aren't durable are a lousy store of value a bad cacao crop or a huge new salt discovery can throw your currency and economy into turmoil a more stable system was needed about 2,500 years ago the first metal coins were minted in China and in what is now Turkey these coins shared the same five characteristics with commodity money but were also very durable in some cases coins are the only thing left of entire civilizations money does not originate with governments money arises naturally as markets are began to develop and as people with a vision of labour realized that if I have eggs and you have a cow we may need some medium of exchange in order for you to buy my eggs for me to buy your cow coins were an objective and universal unit of account and they allowed people to buy and sell goods over vast regions the market economy was born corns worked but only if people trusted that the king or Emperor who issued them wasn't cheating on the metal content using coins also meant that an authority now controlled the supply of your currency money and political power were inextricably linked centralized minting coins in a steady and predictable manner allowed economic growth and stability the wushu coin in China retained its value for 500 years in Constantinople the solidus lasted for 700 years but in those times the coins didn't have the the milled that is sort of milled edge they were flat and what used to happen was as coins passing from people people people would cut a little bit off and in fact some of the taxation that the Kings would do would actually be take 1 eighths of the coin off taxes built castles and financed military campaigns expensive hobbies soon royal mints were substituting cheaper metals for silver and gold this is called debasement and Europe's Kings made a habit of it the currency of France was debased every 20 months for 200 years if no one can trust the gold or silver content of your coins how can you trade with other countries international merchants found a solution they recognized that one person's debt has value it can be traded or transferred when those IOUs came from reputable sources they could be used as a form of money paper money this money was not based on hard commodities or metal but instead on someone's promised to pay merchants families like the Medici in 15th century Florence acted as clearing houses for these IOUs it worked like this an English trader ordered a shipment of Italian cloth from the Medici for 100 gold coins his promise to pay the Medici was put on paper meanwhile the Medici owed 100 gold coins to another trading partner for delivery of wine from France the parties didn't go to the expense of transporting and exchanging gold coins instead the paper was transferred everyone agreed that the paper had value 100 gold coins but only because everyone trusted the Medici as solvent middlemen they had created a paper money machine within a few generations they rose from low crime to high finance their great wealth helped fuel the Italian Renaissance and elevated the family to levels of enormous political power the power to marry into royal families and get elected as popes the ties binding money to power politics and influence now ran through church and state merchants had proven that creating paper currency could be wildly profitable Goldsmith's wanted in on the action imagine it like that if the Goldsmith had seen over a period of time there some of the coins he was storing for people were gathering dust the people who owned them don't need them right now so what if I go and lend them out into the community and I charge them interest on this loan so he starts out lending some of these gold coins and then later he realizes actually people don't even want the gold coins they just want the piece of paper the gold coins are in the bank and with the goldsmith so I can now make a loan with these pieces of paper and whatever I write on a piece of paper as long as people trust me they'll trust the paper and effectively the the Goldsmith and the early day bankers they had literally acquired the power to print money more and more private paper money from merchants and banks circulated and began to rival the crown's coins the power inherent in controlling and issuing money began slipping away from the rulers they couldn't tax or debase this new kind of money but they had bigger ambitions than ever with trading posts colonies and empires that now stretched across the globe for centuries European countries would take turns building massive fleets and waging war on each other to rule the world [Applause] government wanted to take the people's money in order to finance its Wars that's essentially history of money money and warfare go together war is expensive one year's income taxes simply aren't enough kings and queens had to borrow money against future taxes they needed a groundbreaking financial innovation government bonds the loans came from rich merchant families and Goldsmith's who by now had become powerful finance seers and bankers sovereign debt and deficit spending had been born in 1694 the Bank of England was established to fund a war against France England central bank was privately owned and granted the monopoly to issue banknotes paper that could be redeemed for an equal amount of gold from the government coffers the central bank soon also managed the entire debt of the crown money has been a tool of sovereignty for centuries being able to issue currency gave you the power but it also gave the value to that monetary supply by backing it with a force of state with essentially the data state when the u.s. won independence from Britain the first article of the new constitution gave Congress the exclusive right to coin money this currencies value was tied to gold in government Hall's from 1781 until the panic of 1907 the financial system of the US was an economic petri dish brief central banks state banks private banks private currency government currency depressions strong growth recessions regular boom and bust cycles the long term as far as capital is concerned people want predictability people want stability from the back of that they can plan there's very hard to plan in the long term with such a level of volatility in 1913 bankers and politicians decided that it was in the country's best interest and theirs to have a permanent central bank they created the Federal Reserve among its jobs expand or contract the supply of a single national currency the Federal Reserve Note the dollar was tied to gold and strategic control of it would avoid booms that lead to busts at least that was the plan then came 1929 the Great Depression would have a profound effect on monetary policy worldwide I shall ask the Congress for the one remaining instrument to meet the prices broad executive power soon the Fed had printed nearly all the money it legally could to pump life back into the economy it needed gold to fire up the mint so in 1933 President Roosevelt issued a controversial executive order forcing all US citizens to sell their gold to the Federal Reserve at a fixed price or go to prison the Fed offered far more cash to foreign governments for their gold many jumped at the offer gold flowed in and dollars spread across the globe World War two devastated nearly every major economy except the United States the military and industrial juggernaut emerged as the global financial superpower the dollar had become the world's most stable and trusted currency other countries peg their currency to the dollar which could still be redeemed for gold in fact the u.s. owned more than half of the world's gold reserves in the next few decades more dollars flowed to foreign countries governments began to basing their coins with cheaper metals and printing more of their own currency than they had in gold the bond between precious metals and paper currency was cracking this is a 1956-57 times it was the last coin in regular situation in Australia contained Google and it contained eighty percent silver so in 1936 this was 50 cents nowadays $8.00 roughly in silver alone by 1966 foreign nations had had enough of the u.s. collecting gold and printing cash and they had more value in dollars than the US had bullion in its vaults they demanded gold in return for their paper dollars arguments about the value of the dollar versus their currency in suit in 1971 President Nixon settled the matter he severed United States kurtz from the gold standard I had directed secretary Connally to suspend temporarily the convertibility of the dollar in the gold or other reserve assets except in amounts and conditions determined to be in the interests of monetary stability and in the best interest of the United States never again could anyone legally demand US government gold in exchange for paper dollars for better or worse the dollar was now backed solely by the Full Faith and Credit of the United States government the wealthiest nation the world had ever known would bet its future on a single word trust people have this mythology of money that is based on very little fact and one of the nice things about Bitcoin is that it forces people start to ask questions about the fundamentals of money bitcoin is an attempt to adopt the advanced computerized system that we have the Internet – resurrecting what money used to be all about I think our dollar policies our monetary policies or fiscal policies have absolutely created a nation of debtors not just personal debt not just corporate debt but government them and you have to look at those all together as one big thing what is the wealth of the nations for the wealth of the nation is a gigantic hole of money that we owe to the rest of the world that is never going to be paid back today the United States pays more than four hundred billion dollars in interest to its creditors every year when a government spends more money than it collects in taxes it simply borrows more or it creates more at one time every piece of paper money was backed by gold remember for every $20 bill there was $20 worth of gold in the government vault not anymore today governments create currency by first creating bonds or Treasury bills these bonds are sold in the market generating funds for the government that issued them large banks buy US bonds to flip them selling them to the Federal Reserve at a profit this is the magic money machine you see the Fed is America's central bank but it doesn't have any money no cash on its balance sheets when a bank buys a bond and takes it to the Federal Reserve the Fed simply says thank you mr. banker here's the principal and some profits new money isn't exchanged it simply appears on the bank's accounts magic for 100 years and counting the precise mechanisms of these bond purchases have remained a secret here's where it gets really interesting the Federal Reserve is not a government agency it's a private entity and its shareholders are banks which earn a dividend as much as 80 billion dollars per year total are paid out to some of the very same banks that sell the government debt to the Fed which banks don't even bother asking that's also a secret in other words the magic money machine answers to no one the Fed also sets the bar for how much interest you pay for a car home or business loan the Federal Reserve has been given the impossible task of trying to run the credit and monetary system as though we are the Soviet Union it's the central planner for them look for the key aspect of capitalism which is how money and credit is L cater the Federal Reserve on balance does not help the economy on balance it hurts the economy and it's bound to make mistakes even with the best of intentions the Fed is also supposed to boost employment with low interest rates encouraging people and businesses to buy more goods and services government's getting involved in money is a good thing and it's also bad thing it's a good thing because money is the arteries of the economy the blood supply the economy markets are subject to bouts of euphoria and despair and it makes sense for governments to back currency and manipulate it moving the money supply up and down is the most powerful way to sedate that boom and bust cycle manipulating the supply of money has short-term and long-term consequences Central Bank's aim to create new money carefully strategically and very very slowly releasing more money into the economy causes prices to rise ideally by two percent every year that's supposed to foster economic growth but two percent inflation means the buying power of one cash dollar in your pocket today will be 98 cents next year and less nearly every year to come since 1913 when the Federal Reserve took over the United States dollar we've seen that the Unites States dollar has decreased in value 98 percent inflation is a far higher tax because on your income you pay it just once if inflation is 2% you're paying a 2 percent tax on your net worth every single year your net worth held in parity so what does that mean if you earned a dollar in 1913 you could buy 16 loaves of bread today a dollar barely buys you one that's not a quaint notion of how cheap things used to be it's creep that the value of your cash is slowly withering away that one dog invested at two percent in 1913 would now be worth seven dollars and twenty four cents more than six hundred percent return versus a near total loss so your scholar has gone from being worth $1 now being worth about four cents so that's you know 96% of its original value that's a direct result of government control governments don't create money from thin air all alone you play a key role in the magic money machine it's not really the central bank side of the problem and they're part of the problem but the real problem is that we've given the parents create money to the same banks that caused the financial crisis we put our paychecks and savings into a bank account and draw from it as we need it the banks are custodians of our money right wrong it is now the property of the bank on their balance sheets they can do just about anything they want with it for example create new money here's how your bank account shows $100 but the bank only holds three and loans 97 to Bob to buy something in the bank's computers you still have $100 in your account but Bob now has 97 dollars of new virtual money in his account just digits on a computer screen there's no cash no gold or anything else backing up the new numbers and Bob's account just his promise to pay it back this is new money created as debt when those 97 dollars are spent say in a shop the shop owner deposits into another bank and it is lent out again and again and again and each of these people have numbers in their accounts showing that they own this money so your original $100 has multiplied now there are over 3,300 dollars in the system this process of loaning out far more money than a bank actually has as cash on hand is called fractional reserve banking in the UK 97% of the money that exists is just numbers in a computer system and those numbers are created by the banks banks earn untold billions in interest every year by creating and lending virtual money what's more banks don't even need your deposit to create new money if they consider someone credit worthy for a loan they can put new magic money into his or her account and start charging interest so reporters talk about their kindness oh it's as though it's the first digital currency but actually we use digital currency every time you make a transaction to internet banking or to your your bank card it actually it's not even just digital currency it's digital currency that is created applying the bank essentially I have not in other words all new money is debt this is the part of money creation that isn't taught in economics class money in paychecks bank accounts 401ks that loan to Bob credit card debt your home loan all began life as virtual money created by the banks the entire system is based on trust trust in the bank solvency trust in the debtors ability to repay their debts if all bank customers demanded just 3% of their deposits right now in cash this run on the banks would reveal the truth almost none of that paper currency you think is in your bank account exists it never did remembers a drunken party our financial crisis had everything to do with virtual dollars too many people with very little income borrowed a lot of money they could never repay but the banks didn't care they didn't have to they quickly made and sold shaky loans to someone else for a profit and I got them all up here why now selling bad loans was a good business until the whole thing blew up in a global financial crisis the magic money machine destroyed 30 million real jobs the United States alone lost 16 trillion dollars in household wealth and the banks foreclosed on more than 1 million homes selling subprime loads and betting they will fake may not be sacred but it is lucrative as much as 1/4 of our best and brightest are being lured by the siren call of the money machine instead of science engineering or medicine they chose a career playing with betting with other people's money to get rich quick very rich and sometimes they take shortcuts my ancestors in Greece talked about the corrupting influence of power and nothing has changed in the 3,000 years when you give control of a massive amounts of money to a few individuals they will take advantage of that control thanks today are factoring in fines and money laundering and all the rules that they break into their cost of doing business JPMorgan is today coming out and saying that bitcoin is not a legitimate way of doing business banks today are tied into a system that is completely rigged to basically harvest money from the entire global economy and pump it into the hands of very few the existing banking system is cozy it's captured the regulator's it extracts enormous value from society without delivering anything in return and it is parasitic in nature the banks have a very pivotal role in an economy you look at any successful economy at a successful banks there's a very close correlation with banking profits and economy as a whole in medieval Europe a banker who couldn't repay depositors was hanged today that same banker would get bailed out paid bonuses and enjoy some tax benefits to to date no senior US banking executive has been charged for selling the bad loans that fueled the Great Recession in December 2014 just six years after the last banking crisis brought the world to its knees a congressman snuck a last-minute provision written by citigroup into a crucial funding bill the provision allows the largest US banks to once again make risky derivatives bets with bank deposits but no need to worry if the banks implode again lost deposits must be paid back by US taxpayers today's financial innovators packaged assets in ever more complex ways slicing dicing securitizing always using someone else's money they sell debt transfer risks leverage bets that's what they called innovation when you're talking about financial innovation Bitcoin certainly is a very good example of innovation but there's also been other innovations that people pick closer to the world of Finance would fight as good examples an example of that would be the original swaps market and they're moving on to the credit default swap it is an excellent example of financial innovation but also if it's used incorrectly it can create a lot of problems as we've just seen history teaches that the most revolutionary and disruptive innovation nearly always comes from the fringe not from corporate cubicles true innovators see the world differently they see the big picture creating new products and entire systems that lead to new industries Steve Jobs called them the square cogs in round holes it's unsurprising that new innovations always come from a niche group of early adopters because it is inherently very hard for many people to realize the benefits of new technologies in 2011 most Bitcoin community people were either people from the technology space the geeks and hackers or people from the traditional financial industry they are even some bankers and hedge fund traders using pre cornica at that time as well which was really surprising to me a radical new idea is often met with skepticism ridicule even hostility from those who stand to lose the most from its success case in point the automobile in the late 19th century Karl Benz and others built the first cars contraptions that could threaten the stagecoach and railroad industries these self-propelled vehicles or road trains would certainly scare horses injure people and damaged roads cars the railroad barons said were just too dangerous and to protect us they used their power to pass a law in 1865 it required every automobile in England to observe a four mile per hour speed limit and to be operated by a crew of three a driver and engineer and a flag man this heroic flagman walked in front of the car to warn fellow citizens of the coming danger the railroad tycoons the lawmakers the self-appointed gatekeepers used regulations to stifle innovation but they didn't invent the flagman he's been around for a long time for centuries very few could read books were copied by hand the people in control political and religious leaders wanted to keep it that way and they greeted Johann Gutenberg printing press with licensing laws publishing bans taxes in some parts of the world printing was a crime punishable by death after all they were just protecting us from dangerous ideas before the printing press there were an estimated 30,000 books in all of Europe fifty years later there were 10 million as Gutenberg's invention flourished the dark ages withered progress couldn't be stopped but the flagman never stops trying his masters said he loops on each of these innovations because they threaten someone's profits some ways control but remember this is a story about money what if a technological innovation allowed anyone in the world to be their own bank to create a currency free from taxes and banking fees the US Constitution forbids citizens from printing or minting their own currency competing with or undercutting reliance on the US dollar in 1998 bernhard von nuthouse decided to test the result of the federal government the Liberty dollar was available in gold silver platinum and copper it was available in three forms both in species in other words gold and silver in paper as warehouse receipts and in digital form obviously the government didn't like it they arrested me and convicted me of counterfeiting fraud and conspiracy and I'm currently awaiting 22 years sentence in federal prison listen learn that hackers convention in Netherlands there was a young hacker there who used the alias of Satoshi Nakamoto and he talked to a friend of mine and he identified the Liberty dollar in me as inspiring him to create a new currency Bernard bond not houses arrest for creating private money may also have inspired bitcoins inventor to keep a lower profile publishing the invention under an alias and vanishing part of me is interested to know like who Satoshi is maybe that's part of the mystique of the story it's completely irrelevant to the functioning of Bitcoin because we have the the code to read but it would be kind of fun to know who is Archimedes who is Euclid we don't know we don't know if you click was one person to multiple people and you know what it doesn't matter Euclidean geometry works whether I know who you could was or not whether Euclid was a mole and good person or whether he was a corrupt plutocrats and a bastard science and mathematics have essential truth that stands alone irrespective of its inventors and irrespective of their motives well bitcoin is a system based on mathematical truths and these mathematical truth stand alone we can read the source code in Bitcoin and understand it and it will be true whether Satoshi Nakamoto is a man a woman a collection of individuals a government agency or aliens from the future bitcoin is digital currency and computer software capital B Bitcoin is the shared code that creates a global payment network using computers connected to the Internet bitcoins are virtual currency digital money created stored and exchanged on that network but unlike virtual dollars created by a banker this new currency was created with math by an anonymous inventor bitcoin is an open source software protocol like much of the code supporting the internet and email open source means anyone everyone can use the protocol no one person or company can control it every change to the software is public open and transparent the code was first developed by Satoshi then there were dozens now hundreds of programmers constantly collaborating to improve bitcoins features and security so what makes Bitcoin a breakthrough it tackles an ancient human dilemma and solves a computer science problem any shared information or data can be flawed corrupted anything can be faked how do we know that what we're receiving can be trusted in our traditional mindset it's very important to know who is behind this currency because their reputation is significant in knowing that our funds in the true wealth is actually safe in finance we rely on trusted third parties like banks credit card companies remittance services they keep track of money as it moves from one account to another and they charge us handsomely for it we trust that their digital Ledger's of credits and debits balance a financial system that cuts out these middlemen could be faster cheaper and more secure but bitcoin is digital music and movies are easily pirated copied stolen how can a digital currency retain value if anyone can make a million copies the answer is at the core of Satoshi's invention a bitcoin is not a file on a computer it's an entry in the publicly distributed database called the blockchain just as the Medici kept the ledger of credits and debits today's banks record each transaction has a plus and minus in their Ledger's now we call them databases bank accounts are replaced by a digital wallet that you alone control bitcoins ledger is the blockchain a record of every Bitcoin in existence and every Bitcoin transaction ever made it always balances because no Bitcoin ever leaves it when a bitcoin is sent from one digital wallet to another what they are really sending is control over that part of the database code that is a unique key for the new owner as the network processes transactions it constantly synchronizes the one ledger across the global network each computer or Bitcoin miner has a complete and identical copy and because the blockchain is public it cannot be controlled by any one version or computer owners of the Bitcoin mining computers are rewarded with new bitcoins for processing transactions and keeping the network secure in other words the Bitcoin network replaces banks and bankers today the combined computing power of this global network is greater than the 500 biggest supercomputers combined times 10,000 and because every transaction is verified and recorded by the network a Bitcoin cannot be forged digital currency cannot be debased with cheap metals or printed by the billion at will too much currency can unleash a monster skyrocketing prices trillion dollar bills that can't buy a loaf of bread there's a big movement of the u.s. demanding that the Fed be audited so we can find out what they're doing nobody really knows how many dollars are in existence over Denver nitrous created several trillions of dollars over the last several years and nobody really knows where they landed at any timeframe reason the central banks can print as much money as they want they call it fancy things like quantitative easing and when they do that it makes the dollars or euros or yen that you and I have worth less so if the world starts using Bitcoin as their their currency it can't be controlled by central bankers or politicians remember central bank's create money to boost the economy and try to pull it back out before inflation heats up but no one knows how much magic money global banks are creating to boost their profits with questionable loans it claims completely opposite its totally transparent you know exactly how many exists the computer code behind Bitcoin has a built-in brake pedal cutting the creation of bitcoins in half every four years this ensures a transparent controlled scarcity and ultimately limits the total number of bitcoins to 21 million no lobbyists no politician no banker can create more or change the mathematical rules dictating their creation dancing accountability and that's not anything is most exciting about Bitcoin and the technology behind it is not so much that it will supplant the dollar or that it will supplant governing itself but that all of a sudden there's a competitor to government and the government itself now needs to look over its shoulder more than it did this new digital currency can be purchased online with a credit card or in person with cash and it has the five key characteristics of money but is it a store of value is it stable or will it diminish over time like a commodity rendered useless or a crop that fails the ultimate power of a cryptocurrency is unleashed by mainstream adoptions and an ever growing volume of transactions with Bitcoin the currency has been Craig's much more slowly than other currencies and the effect of that has been to turn it into what is essentially a speculative aspect if you ask a lot of Bitcoin enthusiasts whether they're spending the currency they're not they're sitting on it I'm waiting to the price to go up it isn't a currency if you don't use it to pay people the point is the average person is quite happy to walk into a bar and hand over you know a $5 note in order to get a drink so you've got to realize that most people are happy with the money system they have if most people are happy with cash they're in love with plastic in the u.s. 2/3 of in-person sales are done with debit or credit cards that plastic is a sixty-year-old technology created by a middleman never designed for the internet each transaction requires personal data like your name and address credit card databases are regularly hacked with fraudulent purchases charged to your account criminals buy and sell stolen credit cards by the thousands in dark corners of the Internet in some parts of London one-third of all online credit card transactions are fraudulent card issuers don't hold you responsible for fraud but protection comes with a price two to four percent in fees that's fifty billion dollars a year the issue with credit cards from a merchants perspective and there's a lot of risk if they take a credit card there might be a charge back there might be fraudulent purchases in fact there's hundreds of billions of dollars every year in fraudulent purchases a Bitcoin purchase is done for pennies but there are no protections if you lose your passwords or are fooled into paying the wrong person you can never get your money back it is like digital cash for a seller this means no charge back risks for an e-commerce company like Expedia or overstock cutting credit card fees can double their profit margin you could not miss the point smore effectively than by thinking of Bitcoin as a currency and payment network that will make shopping easier for the first world bitcoin is about everything else everywhere else there are 2.5 billion people without a bank account with Bitcoin a mobile phone with an internet connection is now a bank with access to the global marketplace what happens when Bitcoin services and infrastructure and Bitcoin wallets and payment processors start going into these countries these people will be able to gain benefits from trade where they could not previously these people will be able to send money home international remittance which is one of the major pain points of the current financial system yeah you fast then $100 with banks going to cost me 20% Western Union is going to cost 10% other options that are competing with Western Union still going to be about 5% and if you are then into really remote areas it's going to be anywhere between 15 and 30 percent so in terms of money remittance is going to be a game-changer I'm using Bitcoin you do not need a bank account you just need an internet connection in a wallet to get set up it's a tool to give people and access into the global ecosystem and give them a promise for an economic future and specifically provide a way for them to not be dependent on a government that could shut down their bank accounts or even could go into their bank accounts and take out finances the goldman sachs come out with the report and they basically looked at pure to replace all transactions globally so FX bank to bank transactions with the Bitcoin protocol and still charging 1% mind you it would save the global economy 200 billion so not million two hundred billion dollars a year inside transaction costs which ultimately goes back into the hands of the consumer an international wire transfer can take up to four days yet the Internet allows us to instantly and globally share text pictures videos anything digital why not money money which we now know only exists as digits in the bank's database weirdly great if you could send Bitcoin transactions just simply var tweet for example you would say at the end of money $1 worth of Bitcoin and so we feel just that all you have to do is hashtag it with typical person and our Twitter bot will process the transactions notify you and give you a link and this will allow you to either withdraw your bitcoins or set it to someone else with a Bitcoin you can send $1 or 1 million dollars worth of value anywhere in the world you can do it for free or you pay the Bitcoin network fee which is still just around the penny and there's nothing but the big banks or politicians can do to stop it a cryptocurrency that can only be created and transferred with computer networks may be the next step of the digital revolution the rise of machines self-driving cars drove robots that rely less and less on humans what I often think is the future of Bitcoin or digital currency from you know a broader perspective is really about machine-to-machine payments so by the time you have an unmanned taxi driving you around New York and then going to power up at an unmanned power station or going to get repairs an unmanned auto shop you'll see the machine-to-machine payments done with some sort of digital currency we actually built this world that we live in our life two or three hundred years we've made some mistakes we've learnt to make things better the idea that there's a magic key that if you just sort of stop doing a few things that there will be this perfect order that will settle is a very childish ideological delusion in my opinion but that is not to say that bitcoin is an exciting thing it's a terrifically exciting thing but we have to try and engage with it with working minds not with magical thinking people are suggesting that it's going to be another world currency driving the dollar or the Euro or the yen I think that's not going to happen I prefer to trust the banks or the central government compared to the bitcoins it's because someone's accountable whereas other Bitcoin is completely deregulated there's no central control there's no one held accountable it is a people purely demand and supply driven Williams so clearly this is not a currency currencies don't behave like this but what this is the high-risk speculative commodity so for the entrepreneurs the bankers the governments and everyone else studying and watching Bitcoin all I have to say is that there will probably be a lot of volatility in an upward trajectory and to buckle up criminals scam artists bad actors are drawn to any kind of money like a moth to a flame Silk Road was a marketplace that was online invested in the underground web now this marketplace allowed people to sell things that were illegal to government's fake IDs pirated music Bibles in North Korea are crypto currencies inherently bad or just the newest tool to acquire the forbidden porn is illegal in Iran for the few percentage points of sales on Silk Road was to sell porn to Iranians now a much broader one that gets a lot of press with the Gaza Silk Road is drugs I've been doing research over the past couple of years into the online drug market places in the darknet Tor and Bitcoin as technologies to enable illicit drug transactions we did a global survey of drug users and we had over 20,000 people respond to that and the majority of those people were buying traditionally illicit drugs ecstasy cannabis the FBI brought down Silk Road it certainly hasn't stopped the trading of illicit drugs online a lot of people want to criticize Bitcoin for being used for illegal things or a list of things but if you look at it the most popular currency in the entire world for doing bad things is the US dollar if you think of Bitcoin as a platform instead of a currency then you really begin to see the potential it has the ledger which cannot be forged it cannot be changed this universe accepted genius there will be Bitcoin technology forever and have applications in them creating a secure global payment system may just be the beginning patents contracts land titles proof of ownership can be baked into Bitcoin securely held in the public ledger write up a more about Bitcoin play with the source code I build some things that I realize this is actually a very very powerful protocol it's not just the currency but it's actually programmable money the digital age has fundamentally changed the world we have embraced digitized music film medical records communications the internet the free exchange of information and currency can fuel revolutions help in a disaster but our money is shackled to the 20th century manipulated by governments and banks the champions of Bitcoin asked us to imagine payments without a middleman investments without a broker loans without a bank insurance without an underwriter charity without a trustee escrow without an agent betting without recordkeeping without an accountant global secure nearly instant and freak is it fantasy or the future of money and commerce I love bitcoins I'm really into Bitcoin will Satoshi Nakamoto that's the name I love to say and we don't know much about him but he came to save the day well if you don't know what a big coin in rice usually the way people describe it is our digital cash it's money we literally need our Bitcoin as you've gone into the old block chain of Bitcoin I know you're going to rain gonna rain well you won't fight back I'm like relative jóska banking you know what turn plus series like well I could tell you but there's a face down the road it will be told about the death of old mount GOx about traders trading altar coins and miners mining now bitcoins a new technology I like the site they're banking in life Steve Hill oh let's have a dinner just one on a busy join as you're gone into the old block chain up it cold I know you're going to rain gonna rain till everybody knows everybody knows when I go online and I buy like other pair of socks if I pay with a credit card I'm just buying socks if I buy those socks with Bitcoin it's a revolution I am sticking it to the man Oh pass me some ah ah there's always people hood all ready to get into the new technology you know like when the internet came out looking going nah I don't think it's gonna fall and then email came out people like nah bitch isn't getting catch on and now Bitcoin comes down people like I don't think I'm look aren't you sick of being wrong get on this train [Applause]

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