Elon Musk and Jack Dorsey RUNNING to Crypto? / Bitcoin interest explodes! /ETH price action

we're with the stream lagging out like crazy this is the kind of the third try attempting getting everything to work and well guys tell me if it works or not it's on live right now welcome welcome everyone to this channel it's in a really exciting week as well today we're gonna discuss about Elon Musk he seems to be jumping into crypto straight away right into the thick of everything we also have Jack Dorsey – CEO of Twitter it seems like a lot of these big shots big names in the whole technology industry they're jumping you're finally realizing that power of crypto it took them 10 you're only 10 years right so we're gonna talk about that we're gonna talk about Bitcoin prices we're gonna talk about what's happening and the trends as well what happened out of Korea everything on today's box mining so we're gonna do it live I'm also trying to cut this down to around 30 minutes ish that's kind of my new objective just do a little bit shorter for everyone that's not attending the live stream live it's a little bit easier to watch and it will be a little bit more focused on the topics as well so I'm just gonna check out the chat a little bit so yet again it's still a little bit new to me I'm not the you know the most crazy experienced live streaming right there now let me just check if everything's popping up in chat oh there we go that's a volume so far Damian W says sounding good so far thank god it's been like so long to try to fix everything we got crypto Yoda says Elon Queen Elon Musk jumping into crypto really really all right let's take a look look at that news right now actually just pop this out pop out this chat I love popped out chats so the trash should also be appearing as well on here here that's where the pop the chat is appearing I'm trying to make the that chats all up here on the live stream – I think a lot of people really wanted that as a feature I'll make it look a little bit sexier and nicer in the future but you know that's how it is and also I've got my laptop here that's where my laptop is right now so you can see all that crazy number of stickers there all right let's see let's see if you can switch this to browser mode oh yes now the chat I think for this is gonna be a little bit small that is it's the tinychat let's make it a little bit bigger I think that's so that everyone can see this a little bit you better hear there we go YouTube has some weird stuff going on well whatever it's okay we're live we are good rate browser let's go for Elan stuff first alright so what was he saying what well this was in a podcast broadcast last Tuesday and he actually said something really big which is paper money is gonna go away so if you guys know Elon he's being behind PayPal as well but he left a company now he's on doing Tesla he's really really trying to push the forefront of kind of technology change in the world and last year we saw him with you know just reading about Bitcoin we saw him reading about the Bitcoin books and stuff this year finally he says yeah you know what paper money is going away he's finally seeing that technology he also said that beat the technology behind Bitcoin is quite brilliant so finally he's like oh yeah you know what this seems to be working after 10 years of Bitcoin actually he launched life I guess he's not one of those people who invests really early into projects fortunately but you know he can't ignore the revolution anymore he really can't now that's that's something that's James book brush that they can't ignore the revolution I totally agree with you it just it it's happening because a lot of what's being solved here especially with the decentralized space is a problem that was plaguing computer systems for 30 years how do you connect a system how do you make sure that everyone has it's in sync with each other and people can join at any time this is what was a really big problem that couldn't be solved until santoshi Nakamoto published this white paper and this is exactly why me Lama is saying oh yeah the technology behind Bitcoin is quite brilliant he also said you know that it seems to be some merit to be theorem maybe some of others interesting we also saw him playing with dogecoin I mean during April Fool's he was saying yeah I'm good I love dogecoin it's my favorite coin it clearly has a joke and you know he made it as you know he's the CEO of dogecoin CEO of dogecoin so you know that's how it's going it's definitely a lot of people see in the merit behind why we need a financial system that's not centralized that's not control the big banks yesterday I was looking there was a joke there talking about you know give a man a gun he'll rob a bank give a man a bank and he'll rob the world that is what centralized banking is doing it's because we have no alternative I mean I've been saying this for a really long time I mean if you look just google JP Morgan can find you will find just literally just many many multiple cases with big banks there's this more specific one big banks are fine for multiple issues like fraud like deceiving customers like laundering money for the run the Mexican cartel this is like this has happens on like a yearly basis where they get fine money they got caught they get caught red-handed they get fined and the reason why they can keep on going is because there's no other alternatives until we saw Bitcoin until we saw that we can transfer value internationally across borders by ourselves without decentralized entities so that's what that's what is happening he's he's jumping in he also commented that you know he's not gonna go straight into mining he's like yeah you know test nuts not gonna be involved in mining or something else it's gonna you know he's he seems to be still kind of he still seems to be like a very much good no coin er he says that his friends are really involved in crypto he's he's figuring a way to get in we've seen a similar kind of take on that with Mark Zuckerberg as well he's like oh yeah we're gonna find a way to integrate blockchain he still hasn't found the right one he says he owns 0.25 BTC so I'm pretty sure a lot of us are more Bitcoin wealthy than he is right now but just like Jack I think something that Jack also talked about so jack is the CEO of Twitter and what he's been pushing a lot recently is that he's dollar-cost averaging so he's buying $10,000 of Bitcoin per week and he was he stated that quite some time ago so this is from March the 7th earlier last month just every week buying more buying more accumulation and this is exactly what we see on the cryptocurrency furnace what we see here for the past few months is that Bitcoin prices are steadily increasing so you know we hadn't dumped that that happened but what we saw was this gradual accumulation and it seems to be that's case what whales are doing right now they are slowly slowly accumulating more and more crypto because they know that they can't time to market perfectly they know that this is the best strategy forward so that's why Jack the CEO of Twitter is coming out to say yeah you know what I'm doing that and in fact he's actually doing the most out of all the big tech CEOs because he's actually working on lightning so he passed the Lightning torch he's really glad that lightning progress is going well and he's expressed personal interest in doing something he has announced anything yet but what it seems to be happening is that he has jumped into the depths of Bitcoin and the forefront of Bitcoin technology which is the Lightning Network which is about doing payments instantaneously just like that as well so on that notice what I did you know I drank the Lightning kool-aid too if you guys know I have a lightning node up I will be posting some kind of more in-depth discussions about the lightning so it's called Box lightning you guys searched it here that's where that's where it is okay so that's that's my that is my node right now we can connect to it at the official node of box mining so lightning is all about taking transactions and payments on the Bitcoin network even faster to maybe 1 to 10 second confirmations what you do is you kind of open up these channels with other people and then once these channels are open you can kind of route connections through the entire network and this kind of routing only takes 1 to 10 seconds rather than a 10 minutes for Bitcoin we don't want to wait for it at 10 minutes for a Bitcoin confirmation and if you want to wait for like 3 or 5 confirmations that gonna take an hour it's too long and that's why lightning to sec the layer 2 technologies built on top of that will make lightning Bitcoin essentially usable to buy freaking coffee ok so we got my friend life is beautiful is my friend what do you think about if it's moving yes sir it is moving today so that's what the thing I want to talk about today if if it's on the run so if we're seeing if much closer to 200 and 100 I remember before if there was this immense flood going down saying oh my god if it's gonna gonna dump is it gonna go dump forever we saw we saw if going almost down to $85 people were calling me oh my god is it gonna go to zero guys come on so what's happening on e I think with eath it's gonna be a little bit interesting I want to I want to talk about what my friend said after he came up from the economy because I think it's a little bit related to this as well so the economy you know is one of the conferences in Korea vitalik was there debating dr. doom and the talk of the economy was always about price what why pump we saw last week the reason why there was a pump was because there was a large order of a hundred million buying bitcoins spread between three exchanges and what I see here is that I see that kind of interest growing and spreading to etherium the theorems being dumped to oblivion and I really feel this is like a correction backwards if you think about it Ethan was hit the hardest because the whole ico rush that was pretty much like dead like after August that was when I said oh my god like everyone was trying to cash out the check wanes people funds were losing money because a lot of the icos they lost money and then because they were losing money last year they have to dump their if they have to really sell their if quick to either make up for it or they were closing their fund down a lot of funds were also closing last year the reason why is because if they made a loss then the next year they have to try to kind of make that money back before they get paid themselves the way the funds work a lot of these funds work is that if they make a profit date they only make money funds only make money if they make a profit if they make a loss it's much easier to just close the fund liquidate every phone refund everyone and raise capital again that was why the cell pressure was so big back in December that was kind of the fundamental reasons as to why there was so much pressure no this year is a little bit different those funds those funds that are not sincere that just raise capital for the sake of raising cap and not caring about the system that's gone that's why if the cell pressure has been removed that you know that's dumped potential dumper mentos i'm gonna make a video about that as well we're kind of it's just really important I was like thinking of this term like what should I call it it's gonna be called dumper mentals who is gonna dump when and how much that really matters a lot in the investment space especially when you're talking about a smaller cap point coins and it even affects larger ones like 'if a lot of these funds gone down pimentos that's decreasing no less dumps it goes to more potential to go up that's my take on it let's see some comments to– stuf to me don't resist don't read my name guys if you guys are here for the first time remember to smash up those likes and subscribe to this channel been trying to go on more life more recently let's talk about some more topics it's been really really great as well I've been feeling much more live after seeing in especially in the conference face a lot of the Institute's here people they're leaving and if this gives you a lot more energy that drain before when you talk to people who don't know what they're talking about they just care about making a 100 X or a 10 X in one or two months those people are gone because the problem is like what they were trying to engineer was really toxic it was really about getting as much hype as much pomp pimentos done as possible it wasn't about building for a future the problem is I want to be in space for a long run that's that's my objective my objective is to be in the space for a long run and the more short-term thinking is the more the space is gonna get burned and burnt and burnt down but those people the people who are short-term and tell people they're there cleaning out it's not the DEF it's not it's not everyone everyone's not not every like it's not absolute you're still gonna be a lot of corners out there they're still gonna be a lot of pumping dumps out there but a lot of their voices they're just going soft now and people who are building stuff they're really standing strong so that's really what's given me a lot on a lot of kind of determination going forward um Bernard Marcus astable quaint skills some of the value used primarily ICO is back in a good old bear run that's also true I mean there was partially and also I think you can also argue that right now ie owes could potentially be killing a lot of the bear sorry the theory and value too but we're not seeing that because a lot the hope the whole run now is everyone ever exchange is trying to do their I owe and using their exchange Queen as a medium for that as the coin to go so you see B&B being traded and used for finance launch pad you see cool coin share is being used for the coop a launch pad or spotlight whatever they want to call you see what betoken being used for whoopee so this was this is kind of filling in for that space of if last year I mean during the bull run was crazy if you're if you're out of if you can't invest in anything that was why there was a lot of accumulation of if people for moving but this year not so much and if prices aren't dropping because of this whole ie Oh crazy either so I think there's a lot more fundamental value a lot of people looking at this and saying look okay what else can we do with the theorem beyond just I cos just beyond like issuing out new coins what like define there's finally talk about gaps being useful I know that for the past year we've been asking the question where are the gaps I mean like we have thousands of people using people using adapt that's not that's not cool that's not the number of people we want we want millions of people we want to have Supre actual value beyond just mere speculation or beyond just a few gambling taps we want it to solve real problems to be able to even replace a banking sector I mean this is something that if really promise to do from the get-go the notion of smart money smart programmable money I think that is entering the system a lot more we saw entries Antonopoulos talking about how the next adoption wave won't come on and tow we have working gaps that are and focuses on that something that can only be done on a theorem or other decentralized platforms oh peak summer says Tron is developing at a record speed oh my god shrine ah you know guys the issue I had with Tron was that they had a copy of white paper they had copy technology which technically isn't bad I mean we know the idea of working in the cryptocurrency space the idea of taking someone else's ideas and then just prancing it off into your own fork or your own coin that happened a lot you macked in fact a lot of planes are called Florrick's of Bitcoin they just copy Bitcoin and became something try and copy a lot from etherium by that by itself it's not bad but also what I kind of think as bad as the way they market it they are saying oh my god were the saviors of the world there's a big kind of conspiracy and big theory that Justin received a lot of his Tron back during the China refund remember that trying initially was a Chinese project so that aren't like that really quickly so if you engages in any market makers or any markets marketing companies that can pump the coin with the news that he's putting out because he always puts out news another announcement self announcements and then the coin prices go like that that's why I'm very cautious about trying it's just these these habits don't lend to investor confidence it doesn't lend to building value in the long run it's just it just frankly said good marketing and that's what exactly was said about Tron by the bttv founder when he left BitTorrent he just basically said yeah trans not gonna handle it's just great brilliant marketing but beyond that not much mmm it just took take a look at the chat so we have we have legacy of justice tea I think sto will be profit approvable profitable in the next 10 years actually thinks that so – I think it's one of the trends are my trends of 2019 everyone's talked about stos SDOs I think have a lot of long-term value it's just well my face is just really gigantic let me just fix this for a second oh yeah there we go that's much better that's not my giant face you don't see my giant pimples or something but yeah I think I think definitely stos not immediately because there's a lot of legal financial issues that they need to resolve but after I think three four years when people start flooding to this market it's I think one thing that's kind of crazy about the whole Kryptos ecosystem is that it's a truly international market you know if you have stock Seng look at equity we have like the Nasdaq we have US markets we have China markets or the Shanghai markets we have the European Mart's markets but this is the first time that the whole world the whole world economy was combined into a single market so that's pretty awesome super super super super early block Traxxas strs are still so so early I think one of the issues that was pointed pointed out this year was that if you looked on linked-in there's like 5,000 people being sto advisers it's just the big bad word coming in what I think is that it's gonna go for its initial wave of hype hustlers etc and then over three four or five years when people start building confidence of this international market that's when things are going to matter Keegan Keegan penny says PTC will create a global market in fact it is a really global market right now it's we've been looking a lot so I just wanted to see this as well one of the topics that really popped out was that you know right now the Bitcoin pump who cost us there's a mystery person and one of the motivations behind us might be to just get some attention onto Bitcoin and that did definitely did work successfully so the fact that we already shot all the way up to 5,000 past 5,000 that's got a lot of interest into Bitcoin people are saying oh yeah you know what it's not that people are googling what the hell is Bitcoin if you look at Google Trends right now you can see that there is almost a 2x increase in the search for Bitcoin and I think this is gonna be one of the kind of turning points for people with a momentum shift people are not gonna say oh yeah it's it's some money-losing thing we're gonna see you know these CEOs come out to say yeah you know what paper money is gonna go away here's a valley quench you know Elon Musk jackdaws Lee we're gonna have big names coming out to see there's a huge amount of value in Bitcoin when people search that up right now on Google Trends and we saw before last week as well Baidu into Chinese search engine Baidu they are Bitcoin is ranking number one right now in China like across the world Bitcoin is ranking up and that might be the motivation behind a pump to like whoever spread that 100 million dollar order for Bitcoin they might be thinking yeah you know what let's should I love a little bit let's get some price action and you know prepare us for the future Bernard Marcus this 11 minutes left Michael that's a great reminder dude thank you so much man um if you got if you want to become a moderator I'm gonna add a mod to you I'm really thankful for everyone who's been just moderating and talking and helping out with this channel and can't do it without you guys so let's see let's see what I want there's some other stuff I want to talk about that's let's move on to that as a good reminder this is actually quite interesting too so I was talking about ie OS as well so initial exchange offerings I'm not the biggest supporter of initial exchange offerings because I believe is too fast too furious these violent delights will have violent ends right now what happens is that when these exchange offerings go on they get sold out in 15 seconds get listed in five days and people just dump it and this is evidence of that so if you look so this guy on Twitter let me just not on Twitter on reddit pent penka J 940 he's essentially saying look at these charts or look at fetch look at seller look at BitTorrent prices I've gone down since the initial day so whoever bought after the i/o after the launch basically retail people picking it up they are losing money and there's a lot of reasoning behind that too and it all relates so because they bought these tokens and a cheaper price they can dump out whatever price they want the comments is so let's see so yeah all of these we got Matthew Ferrari says can you boost volume I actually can't boost volume right now it's it would actually hit the red region so unfortunately just have to turn up again so yeah super bernhard thank you so much i would definitely look like if you're good with a mod position but yeah so so talking about the i/o space i definitely think that the dumpling mentors are strong you can't even look at launchpad let me just google that for you guys so the classic example would be BTT boom let's take a look at this this is the token release schedule right so what you see is initially the the gray bar is very strong that's the ieo sale so initially all the coins released here will be just from the IE oh and they have a different price point let's say the price point was there okay zero point zero zero one two so that was the price so zero point one cent and the private sale price was actually it was higher so zero point one seven cent so what happens is that right now I think PTT is actually a little bit stronger the EE yeah okay so so it's probably like three Forex even from the private sale price so if this is this price here people can start dumping it so this is zero point seven cents people who bought it at zero point two cents or zero point one seven cents they can start dumping it as the tokens get released over time so that's why the dumper mentals are are gonna be important who's gonna be dumping how many coins and every distribution schedule is a little bit different so I so guys I don't think you know iOS are quick money it's very very fast it's fast moving I think you guys have to look at who's gonna be potentially dumping who's making their money here and well picking it up after market it's a little bit scary for me we got a question about Raven coin I'll definitely look into it one of my friends it's a really big big Raven coin fan so I've been getting a lot of Raven coin propaganda about that recently I'll definitely try looking into it so recently in terms of videos that I'm making I'm making a video on member wayneb oh that was one of the hottest privacy technologies and I'll be focused on just the protocol itself so I think that's gonna be one of the cool topics coming up on this channel we're gonna look at a Thundra core one of the biggest ski to do a lot more sit up a little bit more now it looks now look like I'm in frame mmm we've got pink summer your points always old about PTT comments about the ex-employee it's not just the next employee I thought it was an ex-employee a Bitcoin token lots of issues there I mean Bitcoin itself it's great why we need token David Martin says can you get mosque in here yeah if you guys if we work together skip community let's do that let's let's try to get Ilan here that would be epic let's see it's okay that's a lot of this so okay let's see don't you love Raven I'll definitely take a look into Raven got lots of people shooting that for me let's see what else we have on here cutting down in the shorts show strong positions are when you think that bitcoin crisis so shorts on Bitcoin drop 20% so traders are no longer feeling bearish on Bitcoin they're no longer betting against Bitcoin so you just see that really really rapid drop so this is probably from one big trader just because of the timing everything fitting on that one candle boom 20% of all Bitcoin shorts off being gone it's also interesting to note this is the lungs on here so this is Bitcoin lungs on BitFenix the increase kind of preceded that it seems like oh yeah some trader came in did a little bit so it's from 24,000 to 26,000 bitcoins so a 2,000 Bitcoin increase in the lungs not of substantial as the hikes to 55,000 Bitcoin decrease on the shorts so this is actually really really interesting the fact that people are no longer feeling that bearish they feel like well we have betting against Bitcoin probably not a good idea and this was just direct evidence for that let me see what else I had up here it was a little cool read a tweet as well I just want to end up on this so this is shared on Reddit slash cryptocurrency I thought this was pretty interesting as well this guy's saying that he's traded since May of 2017 lessons talk some real some real real talk so it's a really long article but I think the gist of it was that this guy he was kind of initially a bit cautious a bit quaint and he started you know putting money in and then he stopped Bitcoin tank a little bit going forward but he still bought and then the whole Bull Run came and he could became really rich I think one of the the ideas that he was trying to portray here was that he really believes that dollar cost averaging dcae which is a term for that that has a question fooor to go you don't need ta you don't need to check your portfolio one of his regrets was spending so long trying to predict a market and I definitely agree with that because in many senses right now there's just so much potential for manipulation we don't know when these giant orders appear or disappear it's like how would you know that this one mysterious figure placed a hundred million dollar buy order and caused Bitcoin prices to increase it's just like one guy pressing a button right right now the mark is still quite tiny in the sense that we don't if it was a lot of people and there was a lot of kind of overall like trends were there maybe like a bunch of people but if it's just one person it's just honest win maybe he's gonna a toy that he's click that button boom whatever like it's exchanged so we still have that coming in and just timing everything precisely that's not gonna be perfect and I do agree with that in many senses that's that the perfect timing what I do see right now is that I'm a dollar cost averaging to buy so I feel like we're at a low point and I've said this last week as well I have a dollar cost average spread over twelve months i shrank that down to around six months just because everything seems to be turning right now so it's not I'm not I'm not saying oh yeah grace thank you so much for Brent Bernard smash up the Mike's definitely smash up them likes guys we are doing pretty well actually I'm coming more clear so the interesting thing is that I'm in I'm in the States right now feels like everyone's using Instagram so I just wanted to learn how to use it so this is my channel up on Instagram so it's instagram.com slash box smiting so what I'm gonna do here this week is I'm gonna kind of split it so something that's kind of cool and interesting a file with Instagram that I can do is 15-second stories and these stories will be about particular coin so just shrinking all that like crazy stuff about a coin maybe down to 15 seconds boom what's new what's what's like a theorem class like what's going on right now with this coin is a coin is a good coin whatever it's my personal opinion just talk about it in 15 seconds so that's what's gonna be popping on Instagram it's also a lot about my travels food I'm gonna talk a lot about peer as well recently I wanted to kind of show you guys how to make cryptocurrency videos because right now like you know what the the reason why I got into like kind of Bitcoin and making videos and stuff it wasn't because I wanted to be famous or anything it was just because I want to share some ideas with you guys and I just want to say look what I I have some bunch of gear that I tested and used myself some of it works so if it doesn't work for you and I'll tell you and share that with you guys on Instagram as well so that's gonna be um that's a to pop topics that gonna be popping up on Instagram this this week so make sure you guys check me out there yeah lots lots and lots of really exciting stuff happening and also I think this week content lives and stuff I'll try to be targeting for this time so most likely Wednesday or Thursday is gonna be in my next stream tomorrow I'm gonna take one day off just to go to San Diego check out the stuff so I'll be on Instagram but not on YouTube I'll probably release a video that I prepared for you guys earlier so that's what's happening Robert Ojeda RSA is talked about – operates actually that's probably one of the most interesting things about – you know – I was ranting about this on Omar's channel you know I I didn't like the way the core team was being run the whole enterprise corporation but if it's anything related to upgrades what they're doing with evolution or having large block sizes that's a mall and for that my two cents Fabrice Manzo's is yo yo man welcome to the stream we're at the end of the stream but I hope this guy's was really informative for you guys we have 359 people watching really great to see so many faces so many me people coming in remember to smash up those likes see how many likes you got 998 guys everyone just click that like button right like brother right now if you haven't done so already click that it just really helps channel grow yes everything good Lincoln says you're looking like a snack Micah hustle man glad you find that cool and burn ours is a nice enjoy relax so yeah that's gonna be the target and then block tracks it's great stream I think I've already following you on Instagram man great great content yeah really glad that streams finally worked out so guys that's it for today's stream thank you guys so much for watching see you guys next time our an Instagram

28 thoughts on “Elon Musk and Jack Dorsey RUNNING to Crypto? / Bitcoin interest explodes! /ETH price action”

  1. 2:30 Elon Musk on cryptocurrency
    6:16 Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey on cryptocurrency
    7:34 Lightning Network
    8:53 ETH price action thoughts
    9:29 Deconomy discussions
    13:20 Did stable coins kill the value of ethereum?
    14:40 where are the dApps?
    17:25 Will STOs become profitable?
    19:00 Public interest in Bitcoin
    21:03 Who are the losers in Initial Exchange Offerings (IEOs)?
    25:35 What are shorts and longs?
    26:46 Lessons learned and real talk on cryptocurrency trading

    Also big big thank you to our new admin @Bernard Macarius !!!

  2. Yoohoo… easy money … the financial institutions are like bullies taking candy from the novice investors of crypto …
    SELL SELL SELL BITCOIN … pull back correction is here. Take profits now.

  3. ETH woke everyone up. Ultimately the most sustainable and innovative community will attract the best talent. I think the future will be ''polychain"… and there won't be 1 clear winner. Less tribalism would be a great thing for the industry as a whole (sharing technologies etc).

  4. Get the 'Crypto Portfolio' app from Google Play Store!


  5. How effect do you think the cMix protocol is? I've been reading a lot into it and it actually makes some sense. I just want to see it being used.

  6. He's been saying that for years , but that doesn't mean he's jumping into crypto, i have noticed that laterly lotta youtubers have started using his name on their videos, prolly to get more views.

  7. The tech behind BTC is brilliant.

    Too bad the entire network was hijacked by China. Unless we can decentralize BTC I'm afraid it won't make it.

  8. Can you give us you thoughts on Elixxir's use of precomputations to solve speed issues of other platforms?

  9. I agree with others. Elon hodls more than he let’s on. People like him don’t get where they are by showing their hands.

    Great vid Michael. Great new format.

  10. You criticize people who just want to 100x their money and don't care about the tech, but that's you – you talk about BTC's price and about dollar-averaging, but never talk about tech of LN and how it has been debunked every which way. You don't care.

  11. Hello Are you really going to San Diego tomorrow? Maybe you will have time to pop in to XYO NETWORK head office and say hello to Scott Sheper from me 😉

  12. imagine if the crypto next bull run is already here…. damn that gives me goosebumps.. but prob just wishful thinking

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *