BREAKING NEWS: Ethereum Classic Attacked | World's First VR Crypto Meetup | Ledger Nano X | More!

hello everyday and trending topics overall in the blockchain space we cover a wide range of coins from Bitcoin to aetherium two-bit connect here not always in the positive light but we do cover it and we will today so it's a pleasure to have you guys who are joining us here live for today's update before we get into things I wanted to tell you guys we're about to do something special because I was on Instagram talking about I was playing on my oculus rift which was extremely underutilized as fancy VR device here and people were asking me to host a meet-up so tonight in high in p.m. we're gonna host the first ever virtual cryptocurrency meetup if you'd like to add me on the oculus rift and you have a device you can do so via Oh BAM zero zero one there is in the description my username so you can go ahead and add me and join us if you'd like to tonight at 9 p.m. we're gonna meet up under the money tree in the main venue I think it's called the spot I just tried that game high fidelity and it looks like it would be a good place for the meetup I tested it out last night it's a brand new one just came out actually no it looks like it's been out for a little bit but anyway you can create your own custom avatars and whatever I'm not even sure what I'll look like but if you hear top people talking about cryptocurrency under the money tree you know where we're at so I think that'll be an interesting idea so fire it up if you'd like to join us tonight and chat for a little bit probably do it for just an hour from 9:00 to 10:00 p.m. and see how that goes because it gets uncomfortable to wear them for too long these headsets they'll get better but we're gonna innovate here on the crypto channel so let's go ahead and talk about some of the topics today so we got coin market cap we're looking at you know just kind of flatlined nothing too crazy happening the one that has been pulling us down quite a bit today has been aetherium classic down you know 10% dropped below $5 finally today down to four dollars and ninety cents because of the fact that it is under some sort of attack and there's a lot of confusion investors do not like confusion and uncertainties they started coming out a little bit ago when the eath classic aetherium classic Twitter account talked about how there were rumors that there was a 51% attack happening to the etherium classic chain and they were pretty much just rumors because they were not being confirmed by them and then coinbase you know came out with this as well talked about how they have detected a deep chain reorganization on a theorem classic and they started noticing this around January 5th 2019 so that's actually two days ago and so there is of course criticism toward coinbase saying how come y'all didn't tell us if you noticed that there was some funny stuff going on and you were disabling deposits as of yesterday and withdrawals for theorem classic but as far as I know trading is still happening there for aetherium classic however it is not a good time to be moving around if theorem classic due to this deep chain reorganization that is happening whereby basically somebody who has more than 51% of the mining power for a coin has the ability to pick a block of transactions and from that point in the past forward reorganize things and change the history so for example it allows for the potential for double spending whereby somebody could send whatever crypto somewhere to an exchange and then send it again when they reorganize a chain and so it seems that there are about 460,000 ET C's that have been double spent and noticed through about eight reorganizations that have been occurring it's still a non-korean thing something ongoing right now where it's kind of a lot of uncertainty that's happening regarding this this was first noted here by slow mist which is a Chinese blockchain security firm that sends out an alert about what was going on with the et Cie chain and so if if we look at the official eath classic twitter here i mean first it was rumors then they were saying no they're being transparent now they are just not noticing that there's some issues and it's not confirmed that there's a 51% double spent attack happening it seems that one of these companies that has been building new mining rigs that has apparently a huge amount of mining hash power something like each device 1400 milies a second the company is called ling zoo they are now testing their new devices and so when they fired up these devices they managed to have over 51% share of the mining power for theorum classic and they're doing in fact what's called something that is known as selfish mining instead but again we haven't seen what the whole repercussions of this are yet coinbase did say that their silo they haven't been the target of the attack but again this is ongoing I'm sure we'll know more as a day goes on and it really just goes to show us some of the big problems that that can happen during a bear market it's not just companies that are going under because they can't pay employees the value of the coin incentivizes people to mine a certain coin and keep security costs at a reasonable level to stave off attacks usually it's more beneficial to people to support a network and mine and keep a network healthy but there can be situations where coins are just attacked because of this and they lose their value and that could be perhaps something that we are seeing with aetherium classic today if we go over to crypto 51 app you can see the cost here to attack about the cost it's not always gonna be perfect to attack different blockchains you can see here also the amount of hash rate different coins have based on their algorithm and market cap and price and all of that nice hash here is one of the largest mining pools that exists where people can plug their machine machines over to their nodes and get paid and nice hash you usually get rid of attack 51% attack about four thousand five hundred fifty six dollars if that seems low then you haven't seen some of these other coins Bitcoin private twenty-five dollars for an hour but you know it's really calling it to question how strong and how resilient are many of these block chains and it's causing people to become concerned about e Bitcoin talking about Bitcoin but you have to realize that Bitcoin has 39 million terrazas ii or 39 points something Peeta hashes a second which is a lot more than a theorem classic has and the same goes also for theorem which has about one hundred and ninety Tara hashes a second to eight Tara hashes a second than theorem classic has so while it seems like it would cost a lot more to attack Bitcoin or aetherium it's not unreasonable to think that it could happen if you had some sort of nefarious actor government agency or whatever trying to destroy these things so it is something we need to stay on top of and then there are all sorts of solutions to this to talk about how to stave this off because this is mostly an issue when it comes to proof of work when you have to use these mining machines in order to mine and so theory I'm in the future hopes to move over to proof of stake which will mean you have to actually stake ether in order to get mining rewards as a different way of validating the network which might be more secure from this kind of attack because the cost would actually go up the more you buy these coins and try to stake them especially if the distribution is enough for these coins from the outset once it begins proof of stake which I think would be really exciting for aetherium but for now it definitely can be susceptible to this kind of thing and so developers are questioning well you know how are we gonna get on top of this now this really needs to be something that's addressed right away Bitcoin seems like it'll be fine for now but for aetherium you know it's it's not significantly further than if they're in classic it is in a way but you know it's it's not and so a lot of the discussions that are going on are about whether it's right to take resources and time for these developers to not necessarily work on proof of stake right now which is going to be one of the next innovations expected through 2009 teego prog pal which is basically a new way of verifying the devices that are mining or the debye and not just small portions of it because what companies do is they create these ASIC machines which are specialized circuit chips that can more efficiently mine a certain coin by getting rid of all the excess crap in the GPU so prog power would use more the graphics card and make it more resilient to someone creating and manufacturing ASIC devices and being able to take over the network that way and so that's something that's really coming to the front here but it is something that's really being liked it's there are some who are against it let's just say that so here's Martin Kopelman on Twitter he said I am against a prog pal hard for it to me there are only two legitimate reasons to hard for kathiria address an existential threat of which you know 51% attack could be seen as that and he tweeted this before we had this attack on three well actually during the attack on ethereum classic I suppose although it wasn't at the front lines yet and also you might want a hard fork to bring a theorem one step closer to a long-term sustainable stable state and Prague Powell is tinkering in favor of one group the GPU miners versus the others who are the ASIC miner so that's also a valid point you're gonna take away these ASIC machines from people who invested money to buy these things and so that could be seen as an attack on them and really could cause him to lose moral ground to lose belief and aetherium and getting behind it because they're getting weeded out of the game so it's a discussion that's really happening a lot more with the developers it looks like they might be going with it bits be tripping who runs an excellent mining channel here on YouTube you should totally check out if you're in the mining scene he was listening to the etherium developers call last week and he noted that they were going to be proceeding with prog pal and that probably will actually it will require a hard floor which can be seen as quite a dirty word in the cryptocurrency space and now if you get over to the eath trader reddit some of the discussion that's happening about aetherium classic and aetherium is you know a theorem classic proponents have often stated that aetherium basically rolled back the chain after the dow ins when someone created an exploit was able to exploit a smart contract that had a lot of ether and so aetherium hard for it if they're in classic was born and the hard for kuvira theorem basically took away the ability for this hacker to move the locked-up ether that was in that account because it was already in the code that he couldn't move it for 28 days and so in that period of time it something had to be done and so the majority of the etherium community went the route of saying okay we're gonna freeze those funds and get them back to people who had placed them there so it wasn't exactly if you're gonna be looking at words and verbage it wasn't exactly a rollback but it could have looked like that in retrospect and it's something that the etherium classic crowd have really pointed at as saying you know this is really against the belief of an immutable code of immutability so now the etherium people are having a ball out here saying well you guys talked about immutability and not rolling back chains but you're having a 51% attack right now and you're probably gonna have to roll back the chain and you could even argue maybe that this 51% I'll attack and the chain reorganization that it's currently having is already a you know this is basically a changing of the immutability so that's some of the trending stuff going on right now we'll see how that plays out but definitely be very cautious if you are going to be investing in coins and take a look at your portfolio because as prices are low again it's easier and easier to attack coins and and block chains that you're holding and you don't want to be left holding bags of something that could be destroyed out here so that's part of the reason I've really been focusing on coins that have higher market cap here rather than chasing the gains trying to find that little unicorn that nobody's paying attention to you that's traded on an exchange on one single exchange somewhere that might be open to manipulation you don't want to put yourselves in those positions for now now it really takes a lot of diligence so again you head over to crypto 51 app and if you're holding some coins that are easier to attack really analyze that you know think think about your risk and yeah I should play a role in your risk assessment for holding these various coins on whether you're willing to take that risk of an attack which are coming more and more frequent as we've noticed so many coins have been attacked zen cash it's been nutso you don't you don't want to have to have that so let's continue on here bit connect so they have put a travel ban on the mr. john begotten who was kind of the director of big connect one of the australian promoters the australian director of big connect the largest crypto Ponzi scheme ever that had about 2.6 billion dollars in US dollars 3.7 billion in australian assets and the federal court due to investigations due to a lawsuit that started in florida it has it's a class-action lawsuit which is targeting over fifty two people that are involved with big connect from promoters etc so you know since this has been going on they have frozen the funds that were being held they have been following mr. john bigots in and they want to make sure that he doesn't move around that's him right here in the center being talked to by these two fine gentlemen is that it's alright wallace it's all right it's all right and that's wallace anyway he was a licensed financial advisor for wealth management groups in sydney and was linked to big connect his wife went missing we talked about this he that here if you all remember a few months ago back in april oh no in march here there were spheres as she sparked that she took her own life or maybe she was kidnapped by somebody who's upset about having lost so much money in big connect and it seems that john is currently not under suspicion for his wife going missing but certainly things have not been going well for john here so this is an investigation that continues and you know crime doesn't pay yeah and and it's about chasing those big bucks a lot of these ponzi schemes MLM schemes different schemes play on people's greed they were telling people that if you invest $1,000 in big connect you would have was it 10 million dollars or 100 million some stupid amount within three years and a lot of people have a lot less than a thousand dollars if that's what they put in so I want to give you guys an update on what's going on there it doesn't look like you might be seeing him around your town since he cannot be traveling very much right now so also another thing is people are wondering whether the government shutdown here in the United States which still continues because Trump is demanding a border wall and they don't want to give them a border wall so about 25% of federal employees are out of work here national parks are not being taken care of and dumpsters are full and etc but it's affecting a lot of different agencies around the United States who have federal workers who are taking sick sick leave because they might not be paid for the days that that are HAP happening right now or they might be paid retroactively ly there's different things but anyway this continues and so people are wondering whether this is going to affect the approval of the Van Exel iudex ETF that we're waiting for approval next month from the sec and so we had our good lawyer friend here Jake your Vince key put some input and I always respect what he has to say as a lawyer looking at this space so he says on Twitter I don't think the shutdown matters at all for the Van Exel @x bitcoin ETF the sec still has a skeleton crew that a minimum can issue a one page order approving or denying the ETF before the deadline they won't let something this important get resolved on a technicality because they have delayed the decision for this ETF multiple times already and there is a limit to how much they can delay this decision and so that February deadline I believe it's February 24th is coming up and because of the government shutdown people are wondering whether they'll be able to actually put together a proper report to deny or approve this thing so if they don't put out on a fishel release then it gets approved automatically so people are kind of getting excited about the possibility for that but according to Jake here they can run on bare minimum and Bitcoin cryptocurrencies are too important to just let them go by the wayside and that minimum they'll produce you know all you have to do is put out one page and that's likely what we'll get of either approval or you know termination of it before you know proceeding with appeals or they put forth a new a new proposition in the future for this ETF another thing that he covered inside of Twitter was the possibility for backed to be coming online because backed continually gets delayed backed which is hoping to allow for one day Bitcoin deliverable daily futures trading which could open the doors for more institutions to get involved with trading with a seasoned group of people who are behind the New York Stock Exchange ice they definitely know what they're doing running some of the biggest trading markets out there and they have that reputation that people would want to trade on big institutions that is and so it was supposed to come out in November it was just announced just a few months maybe a couple months before that maybe a month I don't know I just seemed too quick so I was expecting a delay land and they they delayed it again to January then they delayed it again and it's possible it can continue to get delayed because it doesn't look like the CFTC has to give they don't have a deadline like the SEC does for the ETF so they can continue to delay this even with a government shutdown so for that we might have to wait a little bit longer the latest update from the backed folks on folks on whether we're gonna get that is t1 2019 so we'll see if that proves right although due to probably drying up demand from institutions maybe they are buying now who knows maybe they're demanding it now but it seems like it's kind of a wait-and-see kind of thing so I wanted to go ahead and also give you guys Oh et Cie first to get D listed on coinbase yeah it's interesting to me that coinbase continues to allow for trading for aetherium classic i was surprised because usually when coins have these kinds of issues the trading is halted on exchanges but has continued to allow trading although not allow deposits or withdrawals so you're gonna get pretty much expect people who have a theorem classic on their to likely be selling for the most part so I don't know it just seems to me like tinfoil hat theory they might want et Cie to go down and why would they want that it seemed to me that when a theorem classic came out it wasn't because coinbase wanted to list the theorem classic they were definitely behind aetherium they've been super bullish about aetherium and they didn't want the split to happen however the community demanded their theorem classic coins and the community demanded trading for a theorem classic to be on the same level as a theorem due to all sorts of reasons and so maybe coinbase has still had that bitter taste in their mouth and they want et Cie to you know go away I don't know if that's possible et Cie is a majority holding of gray scale investments who has the gbtc it's kind of like an ETF for institution's ice has grown a lot throughout the years Tran buy the digital currency group Barry Silbert they own coin desk they're big players in the space and naturally you're gonna have competition now when it comes to trying to get institutions to use your product so maybe this is coin faces way of taking it to grayscale investments I'm not sure I want to know what you guys think about this whole scenario and what input you have that's just theories for me but I think it's possible anyway if they was gonna say if you are holding crypto assets you should be absolutely holding them in a hardware wallet this is something I've gotten behind forever I'm taking them off exchanges you don't want to lose your funds I know people who've lost funds on btc-e on so many exchanges they can't move it when they need to you need to have these things in your possession and one of the best ways has always been the ledger the ledger devices and so ledger has finally produced a new one they announced it they got an award for a personal privacy and security device at CES which is taking place tomorrow it's like the biggest technology conference taking place from the 8th to the 11th in Las Vegas so they want an award for this new device called the Leger nano X which is coming out it's gonna feature bluetooth so you can connect without having to use a cable they have announced that they're going to be launching a new mobile app so you can move funds on your phone directly if you have one of these new devices or you'll be able to read only your transactions if you have one of the older devices and you'll be able to store finally more than like six different kinds of coins on these things now you were gonna store about a hundred different tokens on this new device out of the over eleven hundred different crypto assets that the ledger has made available on their platforms so this is what it looks like right here it's also got a bigger screen so you can see more of your transaction history and coins on there and it's available for pre-order if you do pre-order it you'll be able to get these this limited edition Genesis block has a nice engraving there on the side so if you are gonna be interested in getting one of these newer devices it wouldn't be a bad idea at the price that it's at I can't believe it it's going to be available for only a hundred and nineteen dollars I was expecting it to probably be over 200 when I finally sell out price I was honestly I was really surprised for all the features that this is gonna be allowing people to use so if you'd like to go ahead and pick one of those up for pre-order be sure to use a link in the description and it helps me out with a little bit of a referral referral something and it's a great way to support this channel and to get one of these awesome devices if you're one of the first to pick it up before they run out you'll get one of these limited edition devices I'll probably be doing a proper review when I get the device myself which hopefully won't be too long from now so let's finish up there guys I appreciate you making it out I love each and every one of you for always commenting like super apex let me let left me like four comments yesterday I read every single comment and take them into consideration for example somebody told me about gab comm getting taken off of the coin base account which sucks that one institution can kind of blacklist you especially if you've built up a whole revenue around it so Jordan Peterson the big author got taken off of patreon and he was earning something like eighty eight thousand dollars a month on patreon and they just closed this account without notice that's a lot of income for somebody yeah so that sucks absolutely and so he's been uploading his stuffs I think two-bit tube now all his girlfriend's I mean all his daughters videos and so we need to continue to fight for decentralization not giving anyone institution too much power I think that is absolutely one of the Achilles heels we have quite a few there are risks you get if you're gonna be involved in cryptocurrency 51% attacks centralized institutions trying to take your money so take control of your coins and then stay in the know it's not enough to just wait for somebody else to do the work for you you need to stay on top of this and I'll try to be on top of it as much as I can to at least be a good starting point for your own research and due diligence so thanks again for making it out guys much love and I'll catch you next time stay cryptic peace

30 thoughts on “BREAKING NEWS: Ethereum Classic Attacked | World's First VR Crypto Meetup | Ledger Nano X | More!”


    00:21 World's First VR Crypto Meetup (TBA)
    01:40 Market Overview / Ethereum Classic (ETC) Attacked
    05:51 51% Attack Costs (
    08:15 ETH Core Devs: ProgPoW Tentatively A Go
    13:33 Australia: Regulators Freezes Assets of BitConnect Promoter John Bigatton
    15:54 Lawyer: Bitcoin ETF Not Likely Because Of Government Shutdown
    19:43 Ethereum Classic (ETC) Coinbase Trading
    21:36 Ledger Nano X
    24:01 Conclusion / Coinbase Bans Gab Founder / Patreon Bans Jordan Peterson

  2. Hey Crypto this is worth reporting on. This is on ETC twitter. According to, the attacker of ETC 51% attack has returned ETC worth $100,000. Thanks to the ETC community's efforts over the past week, this is a perfect [email protected]_classic @ClassicIsComing

  3. ETC has risen above this event and shown great resilience as a top blockchain that not only fights for its integrity but the good of the entire crypto community. So proud of how you have handled this malicious attack. ?????

  4. My first comment

  5. I came to crypt0 in part through your channel. I bought my first hardware wallet through your ledger link and I'm buying the ledger X through your link as well. Thank you for the great content you've produced since I came into the space.

  6. Coolwallet has a lot of the same features as the new Ledger. They did Bluetooth first and a mobile app. Worth a look for people thinking of waiting for the new Ledger.

  7. Another complete failure by IOHK. So disappointing. Aren't they supposed to be a world class company that is monitoring and developing the core ETC protocol?

  8. This sounds like so much fun man! Haven’t got an oculus rift – was thinking of getting the HTC vive pro. Just imagine you could host a crypto meetup weekly in decentraland when that’s up an running. You could charge entry like a nightclub – i will work the door :P. PEACE

  9. Not much of a contributing comment here; but just wanted to express my respect for your balanced perspective on the never ending news cycle in the crypto-sphere, brother. Yours' is one of the more entertaining and pleasant channels I'm subscribed to. Keep up the good work brother!!

  10. Let's be real, the only coin with true value for holding value is Bitcoin. Anything else is organized by a group of people, such as launches ICO, and by default is centralized. Anything centralized cannot and should not be used to maintain value to store funds. The owners can alter anything about their coin and ledger at any time. The only time other coins outside of bitcoin will be used is for transactions, further more it could end up just being 1 or 2 specifically that would be used for transactions meaning everything else is trash. It's just going to take time to weed them out. I also strongly believe that the decided coins that will fund most transactions for day to day purchases will be centralized. Bitcoin cannot handle all the transactions from all over the world quickly enough nor handle the transaction load. Bitcoin is the new gold. A value holder.

  11. The problem lies with the SEC, an American organisation, they won’t tell you but they cannot control Bitcoin or the Market like they can the share market, mainly because Bitcoin is world wide, the market is world wide. maybe banks, The Fed, The 1% rich, even the Government are stopping them from approving an ETF, but Bitcoin does not belong to America, it’s the population of the world. Everyone forgets that. Some of the greatest projects are coming, they are not from America. Which is sad they are falling behind supporting tired old scams, that ruin the people.

  12. I still dont think any ETF is gonna be good for our space. Physically backed or not ETF's are financial tools of the worst type that have caused Gold to be the most manipulated commodity in history. Market maker, Futures contracts and ETFs are whay is ruining the stock market and we are foolish to invite these things into our space. Think about it why would we need any of these things for crypto to be successful. Bitcoin hit its all time highest price the day before the CME futures went live, and we all know what has happened since then. Just look into it is all im saying i guess. Look into the people running these ETF's and Futures contracts. You will see what i mean

  13. Unfortunately, tonight's meetup needs to be rescheduled :/ My internet service provider has been having issues in my area all afternoon/evening, and I'm unable to get access. The new date will be announced…my sincerest apologies for anyone who planned to make it out. I hope you can make it the next time!

  14. Pos will take over pow, if u atack a pos chain u loose $ as coins go down, if u atack pow u can sell the depreciated stolen coins and still have the miners.

  15. Omar,

    Martin does not have his facts in order, PROGPOW just merely levels the playing field so Ethereum mining doesn't become completely centralized, and so GPU's will not be squeezed out of the market as has started to be the case.

    This is important to retain security and decentralization of the Ethereum network. ASIC's were dominating the market, and it was well on it's way to giving ASIC manufactures to much market share, GPU's are more decentralized in small and large farms, and by home or hobbyist miners or anyone with a high end GPU or two in their gaming rig. You know this man, as you used to mine until, I believe it was on or about Q3 2018 you sold your mining rig.

    For example: Security wise you can look at it like this .. At least 20-30% of Ethereum GPU miners switched to Ethereum Classic or another coin when the Ethash ASIC miner came out and pushed the difficulty way up. That means you have about 30% of an army of miners are free agents to attack the Ethereum network. As batch 2, 3, 4 of ASIC's came out and pushed the difficulty up, lets say another 10% of GPU miners got pushed out, now you have an Army of 40% to attack the network.

    The first generation of ASIC's was only about 180 Mh/s, ( megahash ) an 8 GPU mining rig averages between 240 Mh/s to 257 Mh/s depending on if AMD or Nvidia cards are used, so about 60% of GPU miners stayed on the network. Then the 2nd generation of ASIC miners came out; and it mined at 14.0 TH/s ( Terahash ), a huge jump which pushed out another 40% of GPU Miners off the Ethereum network.

    Without PROGPOW,, ( or EIP 1057 ) you now have 80% of an Army to attack the Ethereum network .. when it only requires 51% to accomplish a successful attack.

    We, (Carter, ( @BBT ) and his YouTube / Twitch subscriber community ) have been supplying the The Ethereum Testnet with hash power to make sure the transition is smooth in about two months.

    ASICS will still be more powerful than GPU miners, and FPGA's will still be as or more powerful than ASIC miners, (depending on # hash boards or cards ) as the hash rate for example right now for my GTX 1070 GPU cards average about 32 Mh/s per card, ( AMD is about 30 Mh/s per GPU ), so far on the test-net with PROGPOW we are getting about 13 Mh/s with the same GPU, settings, BIOS mods and tuning. That is a drop in hash but ASIC will also come down as well as FPGA mining cards.

    The result being that all mining equipment hash will move more towards a medium mean, but will allow GPU miners to be able to be profitable again, especially as the market improves. Most miners would have preferred execution of EIP 1057, as all GPU miners up voted it last year; and that would have moved the Algorithm to x16r, x16s or x22i or the like: which has been well established as pretty bullet proof as algorithmic switching is used in Ravencoin, Pigeoncoin and SUQA and other second generation, or third generation coins.

    What all this tells me, is that since the Ethereum Foundation agreed to go this direction a couple of days ago after discussing it for a year now, and is implementing PROGPOW in two months; that Caspar is a long way off if not completely dead in the water at this point.

    Otherwise, why would Ehtereum allow a very brilliant girl, ( OhGodaGirl ) who wrote PROGPOW, and worked for Minority, to basically hijack their algorithm?


  16. Can you talk about Decred or other hybrid chains and discuss how practicality impossible it is to attack the network. Thanks O

  17. Thanks for the content bro!! when giving advice on hardware wallets must give greater details because most people don't know how to do it!!! Mistakes happen! our eco system needs more awareness and friendlier use case!!! agreed you should own your own keys!! due diligence is necessary!!! waiting for your vid on hardware wallets safety! Trace Mayer has valid points regarding this issue…more is needed!!!

  18. Until Nakamoto consensus, there was no way for a decentralized immutable ledger to exist. Proof of Stake is an interesting idea and I hope it works. Either way, the opportunity cost of the energy used to secure a decentralized immutable ledger is minimal. The benefit to humanity is astronomical.

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